Yan Borisovich Gamarnik( Soviet party and military leader)
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Biography Yan Borisovich Gamarnik
Yan Borisovich Gamarnik (1894, Zhytomyr - 1937, Moscow) - cos. desks. and military leader. Genus. Domestic small clerical. Soon the family moved to Odessa, where he spent his childhood Gamarnik studied in school, but 15 years was forced to earn a livelihood. In 17 years, became interested in Marxism. In 1913, after graduating from high school with a silver medal, went to Mr.. Malin Kiev Province. and became a tutor. In 1914 he entered St. Petersburg, neuropsychiatric inst, but not carried away by the medical activities, and in 1915 transferred to the Legal Dept., Kiev Zap .. acquainted with the leaders of the Bolshevik underground in Ukraine N.A. Skrypnik and P. V. Kosior, have had a great influence, Gamarnik in 1916 became a member of RSDLP (b). Conducted propagation at Kiev factory "Arsenal".
After the February roar. 1917 Gamarnik, head of the Kyiv Committee RSDLP (b). After the October Revolution in Petrograd, was arrested by the authorities, together with the leaders of the Kiev Bolshevik. He was released on an armed uprising on October 31. 1917. In a difficult time occupation of Ukraine by the Germans Gamarnik was in the underground. In 1918, came to Moscow, met with VI. Lenin and was elected to the CC CP (b) U. He took part in suppressing the revolt of the Left SRs. In 1919, Gamarnik was appointed a member of the PBC group of troops in South 12-Army. In Feb.. 1920 after the defeat of Denikin's Gamarnik was sent to party work in Odessa and then in Kiev. In 1923 - 1928 sent to the Far East, where he was one of the responsible joint. and desks. leaders. Many involved in industrial development of the Far East, with his participation was designed and implemented a 10-year plan (1926 - 1935) recovery region. At the end of 1928 was sent to work 1 st Secretary of the Communist Party of Belarus, where he conducted a policy of collectivization. In 1929, Gamarnik was appointed head of the Political Administration of the Red Army, was a member of the Revolutionary Military Council and the managing editor of the gas. "Red Star". Cooperate fully with MN. Tukhachevsky in the implementation of technical modernization of the Armed Forces and played a major role in enhancing the combat readiness of the Red Army. Speaking at the November 1929 Central Committee plenum, . Gamarnik supported Stalin in defeating the "right opposition:" We can not tolerate, . to the ranks of our Politburo were people, . that interfere with our fight, . who are confused between the legs, . objectively protect the class enemy ",
. It was about NI. Bukharin, AI. Rykov, Stamp. Tomsk.
Gamarnik In 1930 he became Deputy Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs and was made into gas. "Red Star" with Art. "The new situation - new policies, new slogans," actively supporting the slogan of eliminating the kulaks as a class on the basis of complete collectivisation. Crystal honest, Gamarnik honestly did not realize that was one of the founders is not to state-va, ca-rum dreamed. This is evidenced by his simple story: "To me from Kiev to Moscow each year, the father arrives and asks grinding my old leather boots, and I do not give. They'll see his friends working in these boots and say: "The son serves in the army and steal, where is the old man to take more such boots". He, a member of the Party Central Committee, the first in the Red Army in 1935 was awarded the Army Commissioner of rank 1. In an atmosphere of great terror, suicide.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997
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. Yan Borisovich Gamarnik (real name - James Pudikovich) (21.5-1894, Zhitomir - 31.05.1937, Moscow), party activist, political worker, Army Commissar of rank 1 (1935)
. The son of an employee, the Jewish faith. Studied at the Faculty of the University of Kiev (from 1915). In 1916 he joined RSDLP (b). Since October. 1917 members of the Revolutionary Committee of the Kiev. In April .-- July 1918 was part of a so-called. All-Ukrainian "rebel nine", who led the underground work in the area of Odessa, Kharkov and Crimea. In late 1918 - early 1919, a member of the Revolutionary Committee, who headed the Bolshevik uprising in Kharkov. Since May 1919 before. Provincial Committee Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine, was a member of the Revolutionary Military Council (PBC) 12-Army. In November. 1919 - April. 1920 Commissar Infantry Division. In 1920-23 before. Odessa and Kiev Gubernia CP (b) U, Kiev gubrevkoma and executive committee. Since 1923, before. Dalrevkoma, Dalkraykoma executive committee and secretary of the CPSU (b). In 1925 a candidate member since 1927 Member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). Since April. 1927 Member of the PBC of the Siberian Military District. In 1928, Secretary of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Belarus and with December. 1928 Member of the PBC of the Belarusian Military District. Since October. Early 1929. Political Administration of the Red Army, executive editor of the newspaper "Krasnaya Zvezda" and in June 1930 simultaneously with the 1-st deputy. USSR People's Commissar of Defense and Deputy. Chairman of the RVS USSR.
Since 17.11.1929 member of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). Headed the political purge of the Red Army from the "former White" (in 1928-30 for this article were dismissed 242 people., 1931 - More 150). To arrest by the NKVD necessarily required permission K.E. Voroshilov or Gamarnik, no arrest could not pass him, was one of the main organizers of repression in the WPRA. Gamarnik not only authorized the removal of the army command personnel on presentation of the NKVD, but he showed "initiative", dismissing the army officers on the basis of denunciations. It provides means for communication between the leadership of the People's Commissariat of Defense and State security agencies. 25/8/1936 at a rally with his participation made the decision: "With great satisfaction we found the sentence of execution of a gang of criminals, murderers and Nazi agents, Zinoviev, Kamenev". At the February-March Plenum of the Central Committee actively supported the proposal I.V. Stalin to exclude from the Central NI. Bukharin and other. Defended MN. Tukhachevskogo, Stalin declared that in his attitude, mistakes. After the plenum has spoken with calls to "end the conspirators".
On 13.03.1937 authorized the People's Commissariat of Defense in the CNS.
20/05/1937 appointed member of the Military Council of the Central Asian Military District. Gamarnik, from my own experience knowing what would follow the inevitable arrest, "entangled in their relationships with anti-Soviet elements, and, apparently, for fear of exposure", he shot. After the death is declared an "enemy of the people". As stated in the verdict in the case Tukhachevskogo revealed his involvement in anti-government relationships with senior military circles one of the foreign countries, conduct espionage and subversive work. After that was repressed a large number of political workers - henchmen Gamarnik. In 1955, rehabilitated. Wife Gamarnik sentenced to 8 years in prison (and then back to 10) and died in 1943 at Camp. The daughter was sent to an orphanage.