ZINOVIEV Gregory Evseyevich( Soviet party and state. figure)
Comments for ZINOVIEV Gregory Evseyevich
Biography ZINOVIEV Gregory Evseyevich
ZINOVIEV Gregory Evseyevich (cf.. Pham. Name and Radomyslsky Ovsej-Hersh Aaronovitch) (1883, Mr.. Yelisavetgrad Kherson Province. - 1936, Moscow) - cos. desks. and State. figure. Genus. in the owner's family dairy farm. He received education at home. With 15 years earning a living lessons, served as a clerk. Since the late 90's. Zinoviev was involved in the preparation of the first economic strikes of workers in southern Russia. Because of the persecution began in 1902, emigrated. Working in the social-democratic groups in Berlin, Paris, Berne, met in. I. Lenin and Mr.. V. Plekhanov. In 1903 at the II Congress of the RSDLP became a Bolshevik. After a year of active roar. activities in southern Russia in 1904, having been ill, he went abroad and joined the Berne University Press on the chemical p-t, then switched to Law, but not survival rates, in 1905 he returned to Russia, took part in the party. work, became known as an agitator and was elected to the Petersburg Committee RSDLP. In 1908, Zinoviev was arrested, but after 3 months. released because of illness, was under police surveillance. In October. 1908 went to Geneva, where, together with Lenin and L.B. Kamenev joined the editorial board of the Bolshevik gas. Proletarian. Zinoviev opposed the liquidators and otzovists. At the VI (Prague) conference RSDLP with Lenin was elected to the Foreign Bureau of the Central Committee. In 1915, together with Lenin, Zinoviev wrote a work "Socialism and War", leading the debate with leaders of the II International. After the February roar. 1917 Lenin, Zinoviev with a group of Bolsheviks in Germany, Sweden and Finland had returned to Petrograd. Zinoviev joined the editorial board of Pravda, spoke in support of the "April Theses Lenin. With the ending of dual power, Zinoviev, together with Lenin was hiding in a hut in Razliv. At the VI Party Congress, Zinoviev was elected to the Central Committee, having received only one vote less than Lenin. In October. 1917, Zinoviev and Kamenev voted against the policy of armed insurrection, believing it more correct to hold the combined actions of the Soviets and the Constituent Assembly, so as not to scare off most of the peasants of the country. Being in the minority, they expressed their disagreement with the decision of the Central Committee of the gas. "New Life", thereby informing the Government of the establishment by the uprising. Lenin demanded the exclusion of Zinoviev and Kamenev's expulsion from the party, but it is not supported. Zinoviev later admitted his mistake and his disagreement with Lenin had been overcome, although the "Letter to Congress," Lenin pointed out that in October. episode "was not an accident". After the October Revolution, Zinoviev supported the Mensheviks and SRs, who demanded the establishment of a homogeneous Sots. government, allowing the possibility nevhozhdeniya the government of Lenin and Trotsky. When the Bolshevik majority was opposed, he retracted his words. Zinoviev attended the Kiev Conference, where called upon the workers to overthrow the government of the Ukrainian Rada. Zinoviev - the only member of the Central Committee, who supported Lenin during a dispute about the immediate conclusion of the Brest Peace. He played for the policy of "red terror" in Petrograd. In 1919 - 1926, Zinoviev was chairman of the Comintern Executive Committee, encouraged factional squabbling and first introduced the term "social fascism" in relation to the social-democratic parties Zap. Europe. In 1921 - 1926 was a member of the Politburo. In an effort to become a political leader, Zinoviev spoke with report at XII and XIII Congress of the RCP (b). Promoted the Leninist legacy, printing a huge number of books with articles, speeches, etc.. Started on 22-volume edition of works Zinoviev (came in light of Comrades. 1 - 8, 15, 16). However, Kamenev and Stalin led the fight against Trotsky and did much to form a regime of personal power of Stalin. After the death of Lenin, Zinoviev made a proposal to change the name of Petrograd to Leningrad. At the same time the Central Executive Committee decided to change the name of Mr.. Elisavetgrad in Zinoviev. At the XIV Congress of the Party, Zinoviev, considers himself the chief party theoretician, spoke against the efforts of Stalin's power and was named the opposition (t. n. "New Opposition"). Speech Zinoviev against Stalin, as Stalin, Bukharin and support were determined not so much ideas as unprincipled struggle for power. As written about this struggle E.H. Carr, "paradoxically, the victory and the defeat of Bukharin, Zinoviev, the Congress did not lead to victory or defeat of those ideas which they advocated". Zinoviev's attempt to make an alliance with Trotsky brought only bewilderment of his former supporters. In 1927, Zinoviev was expelled from the party in next year restored, but his political career was over. In 1932 it again expelled from the party. In 1934 at the XVII Congress, Zinoviev spoke with remorse and hymns addressed to Stalin. In 1934 after the assassination of SM. Kirov was arrested, . Sentenced to 10 Years, . and in 1936, Zinoviev "confessing" to "treason against socialism", . "betrayal", . "perfidy" and other incriminating acts at the trial of "anti-Soviet united Trotsky-Zinoviev-sky center, . was sentenced to death,
. Rehabilitated in 1988.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
In the revolution of 1917.
ZINOVIEV Gregory Evseyevich (cf.. Pham. and the name - Radomyslsky Ovsej-Hersh Aaronovitch) (8 Sept. 1883 Yelisavetgrad - August 25. 1936, Moscow). Father - the owner of a dairy farm. Receiving education at home, with 15 years of age to earn his living by work (he gave lessons, was a clerk in the Commercial. Prospect tiyah). Since late. 90's. 19. participated in the circles of self-education, belonged to the group that organized the first economical. strikes in South Russia. Because the. since 1901, began a persecution, in 1902 he emigrated. In Berlin, Paris, Berne worked in Zagray. c-d. groups. In 1903, became acquainted with VI. Lenin and GV. Plekhanov. After the split at the 2 nd Congress of the RSDLP (July - August. 1903) - Bolshevik, autumn 1903 sent to the South of Russia, fought against the Mensheviks, helped not easy installation. Printing. In late. 1904 went abroad for treatment, he entered the chemical. Dept., Univ of Bern University, collaborated in the first Bolshevik. weekly Forward. In the midst of universal October. strike in 1905 came to St. Petersburg, but was soon at the insistence of doctors again sent abroad; recovered, continued his education at Philosophy. f-te Berne Zap, but dropouts, in March 1906 returned to St. Petersburg. Became Popolari. agitator, was selected RSDLP. part of his perform, commission, together with AA. Bogdanov's not easy to edit. organ of the Bolsheviks "Forward", participated in the campaign vboram in the 2 nd State. Duma. Affairs. 5-on Party Congress (1907, London), elected member of. CC entered bolvist. Center. In 1907, returning to Russia, began its not easy. publication of the Central Organ of the Party, the Social Democrat. one of its editors. Participated in the election campaign for the 3rd State. Duma. The spring of 1908 arrested. In prison, seriously ill: released on a motion before. Council of barristers and St. Petersburg, Russia. Exiled in Polotsk under police surveillance. Since late. summer in Geneva, along with Lenin and P.B. Kamenev was editor Bolshevik. body gas. Proletarian. At the 5-th All-Russia. Conf. RSDLP (Dec. 1908, Paris) made a report on liquidationism, re-elected as a member of the editorial board of the Social-democrat ", while remaining a member of the editorial" Workers "
In Aug-Sept. 1910 Party 8-th Congress, 2 nd International. In 1911 he lectured on the history of the party in Part, a school Longjumeau (near Paris). At the 6-th All-Russia. Conf. RSDLP (Jan. 1912, Prague), Rapporteur on several issues elected member of. CC. Soon, along with Lenin, had moved closer to the Russian. border - in Galicia (Krakow, then buried), where they received visitors from Russia desks. workers, conducted meetings with them, wrote an article in Pravda, made speeches for the Bolshevik. Deputies on 4 th State. Duma. Here they were at the beginning of 1 st world. War. Together with a sick wife Zinoviev went to Vienna. The leader of the Austrian Social Democrat. V. Adler ishlopotal them permission to leave for the continuation of treatment in Switzerland, will soon come here and Ulyanovs. Lenin and Zinoviev revived "Social Democrat" and on its pages, led the debate with the leaders of the 2 nd International, participated in the Intern. Sots. conference against war and social-chauvinism in Zimmerwald (Sept.. 1915), rallied around him on it gruppulevyh radicals, produced a booklet co-authored "Socialism and War", Feb. roar-tion in 1917 found Zinoviev in Bern, where he worked in the chemical. laboratory. Called by Lenin in Zurich, Zinoviev on his behalf, participated in the emigration meetings on how to expeditiously implement the amnesty and return to Russia. April 3. Zinoviev, Ulyanov I.F. Armand, MG. Tskhakaya etc.. returned to Petrograd, 1-I obschegor. Conf. Petrograd. org-tion of the Bolsheviks (14-22 April). Zinoviev chose her before.; Zinoviev persuaded her to take "Apr. theses of Lenin. At the 7 th (April) All-Russia. Conf. Bolsheviks (24-29 April). Zinoviev together with Lenin justified questions about her day, to-rye they consider important for the preparation of Socialist. Revolution of. Going to the editor of Pravda, Zinoviev almost daily placed in her article, explaining the Bolshevik. understanding of the meaning of war and the secret treaties, fraternization at the front, as well as the attitude of the Bolsheviks to time. pr-woo, to unite with the c-d. dp. gossip about the situation in the 2 nd International and etc.. Zinoviev wrote: "We ... do not want dual power ... We ... for the fact that in our country there was a single power. And this power should be the RNC Tips. That's when it reached this stage in the Revolution of Russia, it will be a powerful lever for growth in Europe, the development of world Revolution of. Roar. S.-Democracy in Russia has always thought the victorious Russian. roar-tion as a prologue, an introduction to Sots. Revolution of the West ... grew. roar-tion would go beyond just th. Revolution of, then Russian. roar-tion, 1917. serve as the beginning of the end of capitalist. system "(Pravda, 1917, April 8.), and then there is the same:" We are against unification with the social-chauvinists. We are confident that unite, fumes, I to-ing is now clouding his head even neck-Eye Bolsheviks soon dissipate ". Tsp. Bureau and the 1 st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC (3-24 June), . repeatedly acted on it, . defending the Bolshevik point of view, on June 19 said: "Yesterday at the Champ de Mars vast majority of you recognized, . that 99 out of 100 were under our slogans, . and if you have to call to order us, . You thus need to call to order the revolutionary proletariat: "The International will be alive in spite of everything, . because the working class is alive around the world, . because it is nearing the world socialist revolution "(" 1-st All-Russia,
. Congress of Soviets of the RNC, T. 2,. 99-100). Responding to accusations that the Bolsheviks provoking actions of workers, Zinoviev said: "... die today all the Bolsheviks to-rye, in your opinion, were to blame, it is still unrest will continue. How [is] you want to advance in the counter-tion is not worried about the workers, to-rye were the vanguard of the Revolution of? (ibid.,. 143). On the morning of July 3, Zinoviev and Kamenev heard about the failure of the offensive and the resignation of ministers of the Cadets, went to the Tauride Palace, at a joint meeting of the Bureau of All-Russia Central Executive Committee. RDA Board and the Bureau of the Executive Committee of Soviets KD learned that the 1 st machine gun regiment, the workers W-ing Putilov and Triangle "going on the trail. day take to the streets demanding that the Soviets took power. Zinoviev, Kamenev and L.D. Trotsky phoning org-tion of the Bolsheviks and Interdistrictite, urging not to speak. They were told that the machine gunners and Putilovtsi refuse to listen to entreaties. Late in the evening members of the Central Committee and delegates of 2-nd obschegor. Conf. RSDLP (b) reported that it was decided to intervene and seize start moving. From Kronstadt F.F. Raskolnikov told Zinoviev that trip sailors Peter predetermined. After this was taken finish, the decision: "... you can not grant such a motion itself, must intervene and give it a peaceful and orderly" ( "Roar-tion 1917, t. 3,. 365). At an extraordinary meeting of the Working section Petrotr. Council RDA Zinoviev declared: "Today we witnessed the bourgeoisie of its counter-revolutionary. The coalition. min-wah left the Kadet ministers "(ibid.,. 136). As reported by a majority of Zinoviev Section 276 votes against 90-100 advocated the transfer of power to the Soviets and the Bureau has chosen to engage with the executive committee of the Petrograd. Council and the Central Executive Committee, calling on its members to travel to other areas to carry out the decisions taken there.
Almost the entire day on July 4 Zinoviev. held in the Tauride Palace, to the to-rum went from house Kshesinskaia columns of soldiers, sailors and workers, where they were greeted Lenin. Zinoviev, speaking Multi base. times, saying that the Petrograd. Council and the Central Executive Committee should respect the will of the workers and peasants, . want to transfer all power to the Soviets, . but cautioned against taking the fight to the streets, . because it would benefit only the bourgeoisie, . called "disperse peacefully in the barracks and W-Dam, . to immediately resume work on the fax paper and W-DAH, . not go home on Nevsky, . not to be provoked for a single shot "(ibid., . with,
. 366). At a joint meeting of Central Executive Committee and the RDA Board Vseros. Council KD, objecting to the Mensheviks and SRs, invoking the decision of the 1 st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC to support the coalition. Prospect of Zinoviev pointed out that Congress did not swear never to take power into their own hands. "Now the situation has changed now to create the conditions for k-ryh question of power must be to pass its verdict" (ibid.. with. 145). But the meeting decided to reject the demands of the demonstrators and to declare them "enemies of the Revolution of". After this, Zinoviev, Kamenev and Trotsky to convince, they said, leaders of the demonstration to allow the sailors to disarm itself and return to Kronstadt.
. On the morning of July 5, Zinoviev, learning about the defeat of the cadets "Truth", along with Kamenev sought after MI
. Lieber, that was released detainee issue of the newspaper, in a rum-publ. Appeal to stop the demonstration. But it balked at the headquarters of the Petrograd. IN - "The Truth" was printed in "illegally" confiscated printing press "Rural Bulletin". At the request of a gene. PA Polovtseva three of them agreed with the Military. org-tion RSDLP (b) remove the armored cars from the Peter and Paul, the fortress, the fortress gunners and sailors to agitate for a return to Kronstadt and in barracks. July 6, Zinoviev and Kamenev continued negotiations for the reopening of the release of "Truth", but did not have. I had to give consent to the removal of the protection of armored vehicles from the mansion Kshesinskaia.
July 7 Zinoviev apartment S. Ya. Alliluyeva learned about the decision ACCESSED. Prospect Island to arrest and prosecute him. Lenin and Kamenev, accused of trying to overthrow in the July Days Time. Prospect of. From Lenin who came here as they originally wanted zhitsya on the court and sent to say about this Kamenev. Evening I.V. Stalin, GK. Ordzhonikidze, and ED Stasova kept them from doing so on July 9, Lenin and Zinoviev moved to st. Bottling and settled in a tent, arranged for them working Sestroretsk r da N.A. Emelyanov.
In early August, Zinoviev returned to Petrograd, was hiding in the apartment EG Kalske (W-desktop yes Ayvaz "), wrote articles for the" Workers "and" Work "released instead of" Truth ". Since late. August. resumed work in RSDLP (b). Since early. Sept.. together with Kamenev actually led the majority there, iterated Lenin's insistence on moving to immediate, action to seize power. Polemic on the subject contained in the article Zinoviev, "On the Congress of Soviets". While Lenin believed Tips higher inaugural. Coll. Zinoviev argued that the Soviets did not exclude the inaugural. Coll. 'If our Revolution of not destined to die, if it is given to win, then we will see in practice, the combined. type of a Soviet Republic and established. Coll. If what we call "second roar-tion" (ie. victory of the workers and peasants against the bourgeoisie and the landlords) can occur peacefully, it is only by way of a republic. It will then legal roar-tion of such enormous magnitude, to-cerned not yet know the history "(" Work Path ", 1917, October 4.).
The emergence of Lenin at a meeting RSDLP (b) Oct. 10. dramatically altered the balance of forces. Voting against the resolution, recognizing that the armament. uprising is inevitable, and fully ripe, 3, and Kamenev, convinced that now go to this step - is to put at stake not only the fate of the party, but the fate of Russian. and Intern. Revolution of ".- were alone. October 11. they stated their position in a letter "To the present moment, to-Roe sent to the PC MC. Mosk. region.. Finley. Region. Party committees, the Bolshevik. fraction of the Central Executive Committee of the Petrograd. RNC executive committee of the Soviets, the Bolshevik. faction of the Congress of Soviets North. area. Warning that "in Russia for the majority of our workers and therefore some of the soldiers, but not the majority of DOS. mass of the population - peasants, they at the same time believed that "with the right tactics we can get a third and even more places in the inaugural. Coll. ". Further, needs sharpening. Hunger, the cross traffic will be more on them [melkoburzh. Party-Author] pressure and force them to seek an alliance with the flight, the party against the landlords and capitalists, represented by the Cadets'. As a result, our enemies will be forced to oppose us at every step, or we will prepare together with the Left SRs, bespart. peasants and pr. ruling bloc, to-ing in the DOS. will have to conduct our program, but the Bolsheviks could interrupt your progress if you now take the lead performances and the proletariat will put in jeopardy rallied the counter-tion, supported melkoburzh. democracy: "Against this disastrous policy, we lifted the voice of caution" [ "The Protocols RSDLP (b), with. 87-92)
October 15. letter read aloud at the meeting of the Petersburg Committee (b), Oct. 16. around the debate unfolded at the enlarged meeting of the Central Committee. Zinoviev again expressed his doubts, "I assured the success of the uprising:" First of all, not in our hands the railway and postal-Telegram. apparatus. Effect of CEC is strong enough yet ... At the reinforcements from Finland and the Kronstadt not count. And in St. Petersburg, we do not already have such a force ". According to Zinoviev, the Bolsheviks had the wrong attitude in general to inaugural. Coll.: "Of course, it can not be regarded as the all-saving," but it "will happen in the highest degree roar. atmosphere .- It is possible that we will be with the Left SRs in the majority ... We have no right to take risks, to gamble away all "(ibid.,. 98-99). But again, Zinoviev and Kamenev were in a minority of 19 against and 4 abstentions. V. Bazarov (VA. Rudnev) in Gorky's "New Life" reported on October 17.. that "the city put into the manuscript leaf, vocal on behalf of two prominent Bolsheviks against the performance". In connection with this note the stone from its own behalf and on behalf of Zinoviev called the "New Life", a statement to-Roe October 18. published. It reaffirms the fact of the letter, although it was alleged that on armament. rebellion "decisions of the Party does not exist". The same day, Lenin in a letter "To the members of the Bolshevik Party, demanded to exclude both from the party for" an unprecedented strike-breaking "(PSS, m. 34,. 419). October 19, Zinoviev in the presence I.V. Kamenev, Stalin said that he condemns the publication of "New Life" and that is not authorized to speak on its behalf. Lenin, Zinoviev, this is not reported in the Oct. 19 letter written to the Central Committee, demanding the expulsion of both from the party, Lenin did not separate from Zinoviev Kamenev (ibid.. with. 423-27). Zinoviev sent a letter to Ed. "Ways to Work," to-Roe was published on October 20 with a note "from the editors" (written by Stalin) that "the question should be closed" and that "basically, we remain like-minded". October 20, Zinoviev sent to the Central Committee a written statement that the interview Kamenev, had not the slightest relation "and condemn his appearance (" Questions of Party History, 1990. ? 5,. 49). CC, discussing Lenin's October 20 letter of 19 October, the question of expulsion from the party had not considered and decided "to accept the resignation of Kamenev" from the CC. The exclusion of the Central Committee Zinoviev was not put [the Protocols RSDLP (b), with. 107]. CC counted Kamenev and Zinoviev in the duty not to act with any statements against the decisions of the CC and target them through. October 25 st. "To the Congress of Soviets" Zinoviev wrote: "The last hope for a peaceful outcome of the crisis persist. The last peace hopes, which - forgive me - until the last few days was not a stranger, and the writer of these lines, broken lives. Our opponents in recent days have done everything possible to eradicate these illusions. They have already taken the offensive, it is a fact "(" Work Path ", 1917. October 25.). The same day, Zinoviev, the first time after a long break came at a meeting of the Petrograd. Council and acted on it: "... we are currently in a period of rebellion ... no doubt about its outcome can not be, we will win "(" Roar-tion 1917, t. 5,, 180). During negotiations with Vikzhel with the Mensheviks and SRs on the "homogeneous Sots. pr-ve re Zinoviev broke with the majority of the CC. At the meeting of the Central Committee on Nov. 1, he said: "For us the ultimatum two points: our program and the responsibility of the authorities before the Council as a source of power" [ "The Protocols RSDLP (b), with. 127], lowering the point that in the pr-va included Lenin and Trotsky. Nov 2. RSDLP (b) adopted a resolution proposed by Lenin, rejecting concessions. But the Bolshevik. faction of the Central Executive Committee on the initiative of Zinoviev it rejected: Lenin regarded this as "unprecedented misconduct" as "criminal" in existing vibrations and invited the opposition to step aside from Practical. work, "to-Rui they do not believe" (PSS, m. 35,. 44). He was supported by 9 members of the Central Committee. But when Kamenev, AI. Rykov, VP. Nogin, VP. Milutin and Zinoviev expressed Nov 4. to withdraw from the Central Committee, Lenin declared their act "desertion" and invited all Party members and all working people strongly condemn it (see. ibid,. 74). The negotiations with the Bolsheviks Vikzhel ultimatum was not accepted by the Mensheviks and SRs. 6 Nov.. Both sides noted the inability to reach agreement. Nov 7. Zinoviev "Letter to a fellow announced that he takes back his statement:" We have made great sacrifices, made an open protest against the majority of our Central Committee and the requirement of the agreement. This agreement, however, rejected by the other party. Under these circumstances, we must be reunited with our old comrades in the struggle "(" Truth ". 1917 Nov 8.).
Zinoviev was involved in negotiations with the Left SRs to expand the Central Executive Committee by delegates exceedingly. Vseros. Congress of Soviets KD. 14 Nov.. agreement was reached, and 15 Nov.. Zinoviev went to Kiev, where, on the one hand, met with the gene. Secretaries Center. Rada, on the other hand, urged the workers to his political strike against the Rada. Visited a number of industrial. centers of Ukraine, in Kharkov in preparing the convening of the 1 st Vseukr. Congress of Soviets. Summing up the trip, Zinoviev said on December 12. in Petrograd: "We redeemed our sin, giving freedom of self-determination, but the freedom of self-determination ukr. people, of course, the counter is not self-tion "(ibid., t. 7,. 462).
December 13 elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet. On the same day at the All-Russia Congress of Jean-d. artisans and workers, said: "Those who are screaming about the inaugural particularly. Coll., Are not telling. They want all power was inaugural. Assembly, want to take away this power from the Soviets. This is precisely not let the roar. workers, soldiers and peasants "(ibid.,. 467). Replying to a question, elaborated: "It must be recognized Soviet rule, otherwise it will break up" ( "New Life", 1917, December 14.). Tsp. Inaugural. Coll. (of Petrograd).
During the Brest negotiations (see. document of Brest-Litovsk - Ed.) Zinoviev was the only member of the Central Committee, speaking for the immediate signing of peace, believing that the delay in only worsen his condition [see: "7-th Congress of the RCP (b), with. 791 When the Germans, breaking the truce, launched an offensive, he led a vigorous campaign against the "Left Communists" and others. supporters roar. War. At the extended plenum Moscow. Council of 3 March 1918, arguing with him before. MN. Pokrovsky, Zinoviev argued: "Force for an immediate rebuff to war with Germany. imperialism in Russian. Revolution of no. Whatever the conditions of germ. ultimatum, but if they do not cause immediate death of the Soviet. Republic, they must accept "(" Social Democrat ", 1918, 5 March). At the insistence of Zinoviev MK RSDLP (b) 4 March reversed its previous stand against the world.
Summer of 1918 he repeatedly accused Zinoviev and others. Petrograd. Central Committee members in opposition to-heaven was manifested in ignoring the requirements to send as many workers for the bread in the village, in keeping workers from the mass terror in response to the murder. Volodarskogo. However, this caution allowed the Bolsheviks in Petrograd win izbirat. campaign (the Mensheviks and SRs were defeated in late June on the last relatively free elections to the Petrograd. Council) and disrupt the general watered, strike, scheduled for July 2. But on Aug. 30 when he was killed ms. Uritsky, Zinoviev proposed "to allow all workers and persecute intellectuals in their own right on the street" (see: Stasova database. Pages of life and struggle, M., 1960,. 105). Part. asset of the city refused to go to this measure, knowing that it "will turn against us in the first place" (ibid.). To identify "the counter. elements "have decided to create a special" troika "of areas. "Red Terror" in Petrograd, was little different from the terror in the others. field. And he used repeatedly.
In March 1919, was founded by the 3rd, Komunistich. International, Zinoviev was before. its Board. At the 8 th Congress of the RCP (b) (March 1919) was elected as a member of. CC, and on its 1 st plenary session - a candidate for member of. Politburo. In October. 1920 by the Congress of the Independent Social-d. Party of Germany in Halle Zinoviev contributed to its division and take the left wing of the Congress's decision to join the Communist International and the association with the Communist Party. In 1921, developed the 21 conditions of admission to the Comintern. During the discussion on trade unions (con. 1920 - early. 1921) supported Lenin in his struggle against Trotsky and the "Workers' Opposition". After the 10 th Congress of the RCP (b) (March 1921) summarize this debate, the plenum of the Central Committee elected a member of the Politburo.
At the 12 th (1923) and 13-m (1924) Congress of the RCP (B.) with polit. CC records. However, Kamenev and Stalin was at this time of struggle against Trotsky. But in December. 1925 14 th Congress of the CPSU (b) Zinoviev, Kamenev supported, spoke on behalf of a so-called. "new opposition" to an adjacent, in a rum-opposed the watered, the report of the Central Committee, made by Stalin, and was defeated. In 1926 it was removed from the hands-va Petrograd. Council and Executive Committee of the Comintern, was removed from the Politburo. Joining forces with Trotsky in 1927 led to the exclusion of the Central Committee of the Party and to link. In 1928, repented, Zinoviev was reinstated in the party, was appointed rector of Kazan, Zap. After a neck-Roe being returned to Moscow, put in the editorial board. Bolshevik. In late 1932 once again expelled from the CPSU (B) and sent into exile in 1933 but reinstated in the party and sent to work in the Central Council. Was invited at the XVII Congress of the CPSU (b) (Jan-Feb. 1934), on the f-rum made a confession and hymns at Stalin and his associates (see his speech at the Congress - Ed.).
December 16. 1934, Zinoviev was arrested a month later sentenced to 10 years imprisonment in the case of a so-called. "Moscow. Center. August 24. 1936 sentenced to capital punishment in the case of a so-called. "Antises. United Trotsky-Zinoviev Center. Rehabilitated in 1988.
Used materials YV article. Aksyutina in the book.: Politicians Russia 1917. Biographical Dictionary. Moscow, 1993
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. Trotsky on Zinoviev
. ..., To raise the whirlwind of that period (July 1917 - Ed.), A large place occupied Zinoviev, the speaker of extraordinary power
. His high tenor voice at first surprised, then bribed the original musical. Zinoviev was a born agitator. He could be infected by the mood of the masses, worried her excitement and find for her feelings and thoughts may be somewhat vague, but exciting expression. Opponents called Zinoviev greatest demagogue among the Bolsheviks. These are usually paid tribute to his strongest trait, t. e. ability to penetrate the soul of the demos and play on its strings. Not, . however, . deny, . what, . being only an agitator, . theorist not, . not revolutionary strategy, . Zinoviev, . when it is not a deterrent to external discipline, . easily slipping on the path of demagoguery, . no longer in the popular, . in the scientific sense of the word, . t,
. e. showed a tendency to sacrifice long interests in the name of progress since. Agitators sensitivity Zinoviev made him extremely valuable adviser, as the case involved short-term political assessments, but no deeper than that. At meetings of the party, he was able to persuade, to win, cast a spell when he was finished with a political idea, tested at mass rallies, as if saturated with hope and hatred of the workers and soldiers. Zinoviev was capable, . On the other hand, . hostile meeting, . even in what was then the Executive Committee, . give the most extreme and explosive thoughts enveloping, . ingratiatingly form, . crept into the minds of those, . who treated him with preconceived distrust,
. To achieve these invaluable results, it was not enough for the mere consciousness of my innocence, he needed some reassuring belief that the political responsibility off his safe and strong arm. Such confidence gave him the Lenin. Armed with the finished strategic formula, revealing the very essence of the question, Zinoviev inventively and sensitively filled her with fresh, just intercepted on the street, at the factory or in the barracks shouting, protests, demands. At such moments, it was a perfect transmission between Lenin and the masses, partly between the mass and Lenin. During his teacher Zinoviev always followed, minus a very few cases, but the differences advancing hour at a time, when the fate of the party, class, country. Agitator revolution lacked the revolutionary character. Since it was a matter of winning heads and shower, Zinoviev remained a tireless fighter. But he soon lost his battle confidence when comes face to face with the necessity of. Then he drew back from the masses, as well as from Lenin, to respond only to vote, undecided, pick up a doubt, have seen some obstacles, and his insinuating, almost feminine voice, losing credibility, gave the internal weakness. Under the walls of the Tauride Palace in the July days Zinoviev was extremely energetic, resourceful and strong. He rose to the highest notes of the excitation of the masses - not to call for decisive action, but rather to keep them. This is consistent with the time and the policy of the Party. Zinoviev was completely in his element.
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. Under Stalin
. Evseyevich Grigory Zinoviev (real name - Ovsej-Hersh Aronovich Radomyslsky) (8.9.1883, Yelisavetgrad - 25.8.1936, Moscow), party activist
. The son of the owner of a dairy farm, name of the mother - Apfelbaum. He studied at the chemical and Philosophy Department of the University of Bern (not finished). From 1898, he earned lessons, worked as a clerk in the store. Since the end of 1890. joined in the revolutionaries involved in the organization of strikes. In 1901, he joined the RSDLP, Bolshevik. In 1902 he emigrated. He lived in Berlin, Paris, Berne, where in 1903 met with VI. Lenin and GV. Plekhanov. The autumn of 1903 sent to the South of Russia, has created here, illegal printing press, but in the end of 1904 went abroad "for treatment". In October. 1905 arrived in St. Petersburg, but soon left again for treatment in Switzerland. Since March 1906 - St. Petersburg. With good oratorical data, Zinoviev soon became very popular in the party, elected to the Petersburg Committee, a member of its executive committee, editor of illegal organ Bolshevik newspaper "Forward". Since 1907 member RSDLP, in the same year he returned to Russia and began publishing the clandestine newspaper "Social Democrat". The spring of 1908 arrested, but soon at the request of the barristers on health was released and deported in Polotsk. In the late summer of 1908 went to Geneva, where, together with Lenin and L.B. Kamenev joined the editorial board "Proletarian". Since December. 1908 as associate editor of "Social-Democrat". In 1911 he lectured on the history of the Party in the Party School in Longjumeau near Paris. The closest assistant. Lenin and with him from exile in fact led the party, was the speech of deputies of the Duma, gave directives, etc.. Start 1-WWI caught Zinoviev and Lenin in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, but at the request of the local Social Democrats were not interned, as all citizens of Russia, and was allowed to leave for Switzerland for treatment. Here, Zinoviev and Lenin to recreate the "Social Democrat", making it an instrument of struggle and slander against their political opponents, especially in the social-democratic movement. After the February Revolution together with Lenin, NK. Krupskaya AND. Armand, MG. Tskhakaya and others in the sealed train through Germany, arrived in Petrograd (3.4.1917). Member of the editorial board of the newspaper "Pravda", appeared on its pages, with daily articles, becoming the Tourist Office. one of the chief propagandists and ideologues of the Party. During the July crisis of 1917 was an active supporter of peaceful development. Hearing 7.7.1917 Interim Government's decision to arrest him, . Zinoviev, . knowing, . that serious harassment he is not threatened, . originally wanted to come to the authorities, . to use the judicial forum for advocacy, . but then changed his mind, . and 9 July with Lenin, they have served in spill,
. In August. 1917 he returned to Petrograd, and resumed work at the CC, in fact, together with Kamenev was led by his most. Supporter of a legal, peaceful transition of power in the hands of the Bolsheviks and the enemy, in this respect Lenin. October 10. opposed the armed uprising, and then sent a letter "To the present moment" with criticism of Lenin's resolution. For Oct. 19. his duty not to act with any statements against the decisions of the CC, but even from the CC not withdrawn. In early Nov.. Zinoviev, Lenin again argued against an attempt to convince the Central Committee to compromise with other socialist parties, which is not like Lenin. On 13.12.1917 before. Petrograd Soviet. During negotiations with the Germans about the world Zinoviev was the only member of the Central Committee, who insisted on the immediate signing of a peace treaty. One of the main organizers of terror after the assassination of Zinoviev ms. Uritskogo proposed "to allow all workers and persecute intellectuals in their own right on the street". After that established the "troika", which launched in Petrograd orgy red terror. In a short time in the city, where there were many representatives of the "exploiting classes", killed tens of thousands of people. Since March 1919 before. ECCI. Since 1919, candidate member, since 1921 Member of the Politburo. When the offensive began on white Petrograd, Zinoviev panicked and ordered to develop a plan for a general evacuation of the city, and ordered to prepare the sunken ships Petrograd base. Without the consent of the center, he began the export of equipment and in doing so hysterically pleaded to Moscow to send the city a few divisions from the Eastern Front. For 10 years, Zinoviev was the powerful governor of Petrograd, during his rule did not stop terror and persecution of "class enemies". In t.ch. Zinoviev organized a mass expulsion of the nobles and the bourgeoisie to the north, where most deaths. In the society of the same name Zinoviev caused fear and loathing, and it was called "Bloody Grishka" or "Grishka second" (by analogy with G.E. Rasputin). Zinoviev - one of the most notorious figures in the formation of the Bolshevik regime in the USSR. During the discussion on trade unions (1920-21) provided important support for Lenin against Trotsky, LD. which always disliked. Neotlichavshiysya strong character Zinoviev, bold and resolute in the prevalence given to him on the massacre of the town panicked when receiving the news of the uprising in Kronstadt (1921), and only decisive action MN. Tukhachevskogo and Trotsky saved him. According to A. V. Lunacharskogo, Zinoviev was "one of those 4-5 people who are mainly political brain Party, was considered one of the most talented speakers. At the XII and XIII Congress of the Party he was instructed to make political reports. In 1923-24 a member of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee. After Lenin's death has teamed up with I.V. Stalin and Kamenev against Trotsky for. One of those who played a crucial role in the approval. Power of Stalin, was one of his closest friends. In December. 1925 at the XIV Congress of the CPSU (b) on behalf of the "new opposition" to an adjacent, which opposed the political report of the Central Committee, has read Stalin. But it was too late, a majority supported Stalin. In 1926, Zinoviev was removed from the Politburo, removed from the leadership of the Petrograd Soviet, Central Committee withdrew from the post before Zinoviev. Board Kominterna.a then at the suggestion of the Soviet delegation, this post was not eliminated. In the heat of the controversy called Stalin's bloody Ossetians, they do not know what a conscience ". After that, allied with Trotsky and was in October. 1927 derived from the CC, and at the XV Congress of the CPSU (B) in Dec. 1927 expelled from party. After that, he was sent into exile - the first serious punishment for his entire life. In 1928, he repented and "disarm", was reinstated in the party and was appointed rector of Kazan University. Then returned to Moscow and entered the editorial board of "Bolshevik", and in 1931 appointed a member of the Board of Education of the RSFSR People's Commissariat. In October. 1932 again in the case of the Union of Marxist-Leninists "expelled from the party and exiled to Kustanai. In 1933, again restored, and he was given a sinecure in the Central Union. At the XVII Congress of the CPSU (b) made (read his speech here) with another repentance and slaver Stalin and his associates. 16/12/1934 arrested and 16.1.1935 in the open trial of the "Moscow Center" was sentenced to 10 years in prison. In court fully complied with the order KGB to discredit themselves and their colleagues, wrote to Stalin, "that I am yours, body and soul, that I understood everything that I am ready to do anything to deserve forgiveness and leniency". In 1936 Zinoviev from prison once again brought to the propaganda of an open process, now in the case of "anti-Soviet Trotsky-Zinoviev Center, where he became chief of the accused. Stalin at personal reception Zinoviev had promised that if he, along with Kamenev, admits all the charges against him, they keep life. Zinoviev agreed. 24/8/1936 sentenced to death. Shot. According to the memoirs, before his execution humbly begged for mercy, he kissed his boots his executioners, and then from the fear of never been able to go. In 1988, rehabilitated. His ex-wife, Sarah V. Ravich (1899-1957), member of the party since 1918, before. Leningrad trust land construction, 22/12/1934, was arrested and sent into exile, later in 1937, 1946, 1951 were arrested again and was finally released only in 1954.