Kamke Boris Davidovich( Activity)
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Biography Kamke Boris Davidovich
KAMKOV Boris Davidovich (Katz) (1885, in Soroca. Bessarabia lips. - August 29. 1938). The son of country doctor. Participated in the roar. Traffic in Kishinev, Odessa, Nikolaev. In 1904, arrested as a member of the militant org-tion SR. In 1905, exiled in Turukhansk Territory, in 1907 he fled abroad. Established links with MA Natanson, VM. Chernov, collaborated in the emigre press. In 1911 he graduated from Heidelberg University Press; Lawyer. During the 1-st world. War internationalist ". He was a antivoen Received. gas. "Life", the Paris group promoting the AKP: Zimmerwald party conference. In 1915, one of the founders of the K-ta help rus. prisoners of war, "to-ing, except for material assistance, conducted roar. propaganda. Zaruba, agents of the secret police had indicated that to-volume printed and distributed "Multi base. thousands of kilograms of publications AKP. By the autumn of 1916 served more than 100 camps "(TSGAOR, DP. 00. 1916, op. 260, D. 75, Bx. 1204; 335, T. 2, 1916, L. 10 vol.).
After the February. Revolution of 1917 he returned to Russia via Germany, that the right print used for the prosecution Kamkov in "espionage". In April. elected to the Petrograd. Council RDA, did much to unite radical deputies of the Council. At the 2 nd Petrograd. Conf. AKP (3-5 May.) Was co-rapporteur on the war. Characterized (April 4). Oboronch. position of Rapporteur CC ap. Gotz, as "social-patriotic. with internationalization. entourage, demanded that the Central Committee to take steps "towards ending the war". Resolution Kamkov not accepted, but he was elected a member of the AKP PC ( "Case of the People", 1917, April 7.).
May 3 at the joint meeting of the North. regional, Petrograd. city and district to the C fraction of the AKP Petrosovet KAMKOV opposed joining the SR during. "bourgeois" Prospect of (ibid., May 5). "Kamkovtsy" rendered their differences with the Central Committee on North. Region. JWP conference (21-24 May, Petrograd), the conference did not support them: but the K, and his associates PP. Proshyan and п?.п?. Ustinov had been elected to the North. Region. to the SGP-T, although the 1 st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of CD (4-28 May, Petrograd) for election to the Board Vseros. Council KD May 19 KAMKOV received only 10 votes. At the 3 rd Congress of the AKP (25 May --
June 4, Moscow) left put the co-rapporteurs for DOS. agenda: KAMKOV talked about war and peace. He rejected the thesis Gotz Rapporteur on, . that after the February war ceased to be imperialist, . demanded oblige the Allies to answer: if they agree to stop the war, . "If the center, . monarchy will be peace terms, . dictated by the RNC "(" 3rd Congress of the AKP ", . P '1917, . with,
. 113-14). KAMKOV not succeeded (the left had 42 mandates out of 306), it does not even included in the list for the election of the CC (on the left was one Nathanson). Convinced of the impossibility to change the policy of the AKP, Kamkov, Nathanson and MA Spiridonov have initiated the establishment of the Organizing Bureau of the Left SRs: their faction took shape on the Board Vseros. KD Board and the All.
At the 1 st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets RNC (3-24 June) KAMKOV was elected to the All. worked in his department Agraranom. In the July days at the joint meeting of the Central Executive Committee and Board Vseros. Council KD 9 July delegations supported the demands of working on the resignation of "capitalist ministers" and the transfer of power to the Soviets, was against the adoption of a resolution declaring ACCESSED. Prospect of "Prospect PTO Salvation Revolution of ... with unlimited. authority, expressed the fear that the fight ACCESSED. Prospect of the counter-va-tion will be directed against his political currents, standing in opposition to the majority of the Soviets "(KV Gusev 'Social Revolutionary Party: From melkoburzh. revolutionarism to the counter-tion, M '1975. with. 150-51).
July 9 gas. "Land and Freedom, published a declaration of the Organization Bureau and the Left SR Central Executive Committee and Board Vseros. Of the CD, as well as a letter to the newspaper VA Algasova, AL. Kolegaeva, KAMKOV. Left said that they intend to "separate out from politics, mastered the governing majority, and the reserve ... complete freedom of speeches ". July 12 authors of the letter was expelled from the AKP, in belonging to the new org-tion, not subject to the CC. Left agreed in exchange for lifting the sanctions of the Central Committee to dissolve the Organization Bureau. But, as subsequently wrote Kamkov, the struggle between the roar. socialism and the Burj. reformism grew out of confrontation, "inevitable in a period of great social upheaval ... all Sots. parties "(KAMKOV B., Two Tactics, Moscow, 1918, with. 8).
Left SRs was important to enlist the support from the field. KAMKOV traveled to cities to give lectures or to participate in congresses and conferences. His speech at the 1 st Congress of Soldiers. Councils and Kazan IN publich. lectures (30 July - 2 August.) received by the Company, resonance. August 3. Cross. The newspaper "Kazan, lips. zemstvos wrote that "the report was enthusiastically received by the audience, to the paradise-roar and the whistle did not give to object Rapporteur".
6.10 August. KAMKOV participated in the 7 th of the Party. Sep 10. 7-I Petrograd. Conf. AKP approved a resolution (deflection by the Party), to demand an armistice, the transfer of power to the Soviets, and the land - the Earth. to-there, condemning the coalition with the bourgeoisie and insist on the formation of "homogeneous Sots. pr-va ". KAMKOV was re-elected member of the PC AKP. At Dem. meeting (14-22 sept.), in the Pre-Parliament (22 Sept.-25 oct.) KAMKOV defended their positions. The rejection of the majority of proposals Kamkov led him to a rapprochement with the Bolsheviks. October 6. held talks L.B. Kamenev and LD. Trotsky with Kamkov, Natanson and AA Schreider. Bolsheviks informed of the intention to withdraw from the Pre-Parliament and offered to join in the Left SRs. It. The Left SRs responded that in the Pre-Parliament will remain, but promised "full support for the Bolsheviks in the case of the roar. performances outside of it "(Shteyberg AND 'From February to October 1917, Berlin - Milan, BG, with. 115).
Autumn KAMKOV occupied a dominant position in the country's largest metropolitan org-tion AKP (44,5 thousand. pers.). SRs Petrograd put forward its candidate for the inaugural. Coll., 8 I-mountains. Conf. AKP October 15. re-elected member of the PC. KAMKOV directed his efforts against the AKP in PC, the preparation of 2-nd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC, bringing to his work of the Soviets KD, Org-tion of workers and soldiers to support the Congress in the event, "if the time. Prospect of not gone voluntarily resign "(" Minutes of the 1 st Congress of the PLSR ". M '1918, with. 38). At the same time sought to prevent the Bolsheviks to seize power before the Congress that, in his opinion, have planted owls. parties on opposite sides of the fence and plunge the country into grazhd. war ( "Banner of Labor", 1917, October 15.).
KAMKOV supported the participation of the Left SRs in Petrograd. VRK. October 25. at a meeting of the faction SGP 2-nd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets, the RNC was to participate in its work, and after refusing to participate in the formation of the Left Socialist-Revolutionary faction and agreed to represent her in the Presidium of the Congress, was a "Commission on contacts with the Bolsheviks'. In November. KAMKOV explained his actions: "We, as his political leaders, at a time when there is a huge event in its historical. value .- least able to engage in moral character. We were clear that our place - to be with a roar-tion "(Minutes of the 1 st Congress of the PL & R" with. 41-42). At the 2 nd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets RNC KAMKOV not agree with the declaration, read out by LD. clears from the counter. impurities labor and Cross, the roaring-tion, "insisted on the formation of Prospect Island from all the owls. parties ( "2-nd Congress of Soviets of the RNC, Leningrad, 1928,. 43-44). The Left should not, said KAMKOV - "isolate itself from the moderate Dem. forces necessary to seek agreement with them ". KAMKOV claimed: the danger of the restoration is not resolved, the Bolsheviks did not have much influence in the countryside, and "cross-in - a Revolution of the infantry, without a swarm-roar-tion should perish" ( "Case of the People", 1917, October 27.). Trying to get the Bolsheviks in the coalition agreement. Sots. pr-vo, KAMKOV (and with it VA Karelin and V.B. Spiro, then Kolegayev) refused to participate in CNS. KAMKOV said: "... we realized that not help the cause, if this purely Bolshevik. power volem one or two of the Left SRs, ... that we are indirectly guilty and the CET. War in Heaven, was inevitable, and to-paradise now is indeed the case: the Left Socialist Revolutionaries wanted the new government was recognized, if not all roar. democracy, at least most of it ... Our goal ... bind torn chain, bringing together two fronts rus. democracy ( "The Protocols of the 1 st Congress of the PLSR, with. 43). 2-nd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC admitted that the Central Executive Committee may oyt recharged "by the cross. Councils and those groups to-rye left the Congress ". October 27. 1 Plenary Session of the All Bolsheviks declared: "implementing the principle of coalition, in fact, drug. commissioners can not and do not close doors to those who, based on the principles outlined by the Congress, wants to work with them "(" 2-nd Congress of Soviets of the RNC, "with. 92; minutes of meetings of the All 2-convocation ", Moscow, 1918, with. 3).
KAMKOV participated in the negotiations with Vikzhel to establish "uniform Sots. pr-va ". CC AKP solutions from October 29., 1 and 8 Nov.. expelled from the party all those who "disgraced" themselves by collaborating with the Bolsheviks. In this situation KAMKOV participated in the design of Left Socialist-Revolutionary Party, tk. believed that provoking CET. war are guilty of "a right to, hence take like agreement with the Bolsheviks" ( "Minutes of the 1 st Congress of the PLSR, with. 45). Not later than 6 Nov.. he entered during. center, offices, OCH. task to-cerned was the preparation inaugural. Congress PLSR. At the 2 nd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets RNC KAMKOV was elected to the Central Executive Committee, became a member of its Bureau and the Bureau of the Left SRs from 6 Nov.. led with G.E. Zinoviev Internat. Front. KAMKOV acted on: the left block, construction of the All-peace or war, the restoration of the violated Bolsheviks CET. Freedoms. In exceedingly. Vseros. Congress of Soviets of CD (11-25 nov., Petrograd), K-ing. prev. Bureau: 14 Nov.. participated in the negotiations with the Bolsheviks to merge the All 2-th convocation of the Board, formed by this Congress, and the participation of the Left SRs in pr-ve.
. At the 1 st Congress of the PLSR (19-28 nov., . Petrograd) in the report on the activities of the Left SR at the Congress RNC "K noted the contradiction between the Bolsheviks and Left SRs, . based to-ryh is an attempt of the Bolsheviks to adopt the "dictatorship of the proletariat", . and our requirement - "the dictatorship of democracy,
. However KAMKOV called for a close block both parties, for the expansion of that part of his roar. democracy, to-heaven must understand the error of position. And we are "joint efforts will create such a power in relation to a swarm-no one could say that it is the power of a single party, but the power of the roar .... democracy "(" Minutes of the 1 st Congress of the PLSR, with. 39-46. 73). Congress established the Party of the Left Social-p. (Internationalist). In elections to the Central Committee for Kamkov Spiridonov and 68 people have voted. Only Nathanson received more votes - 69.
KAMKOV involved in the dissolution of the inaugural. Coll. (Jan. 6. 1918), in the union on January 13. 3rd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC and the 3rd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets CD, in the creation Cross section of the All-in formulating the law on socialization of the land. KAMKOV concentrated on the work of the Central Executive Committee and the Central Committee of the PLSR. He insisted on the rapprochement with the Bolsheviks Chapter. arr. because they fought against the war, approved the participation of the Left SRs in the Brest peace delegation. At W-m Vseros. Congress of Soviets RSKD (10-18 January). KAMKOV proponents of continuing the war: "For you need one: voyuy at whatever cost, voyuy to the last man, even if it led to the Revolution of death" (3rd Congress of Soviets RSKD, P., 1918, with. 65). But the 4 th All-Russia. Congress of Soviets (March 14-16, 1918, Moscow) on the ratification of the Brest-Litovsk treaty, KAMKOV suddenly said: ".. the contract leads to a complete suffocation in Russian. Revolution of "CC PLSR withdrawing its representatives from the ANC, and" will do everything in his power to assist the armament. resistance on all fronts "(" 4 th exceedingly. Congress of Workers, Soldiers., the cross, and the Cossack. Affairs. "M., 1920, with. 23, 40, 51).
In the 2 nd floor. March 1918 Kamkov, Karelin and Steinberg went to the South to campaign for the breakdown of the Brest peace and help the local Left SRs in org-tion of military units. They returned to Moscow before the opening of the 2 nd Congress of the PLSR (17-25 April).. The main report was Kamkov the break governments, the block. April 25. of Org. meeting of the Central Committee KAMKOV was elected before. Presidium PLSR. Led by KAMKOV CC PLSR in the 1 st floor. May shapes Center, Division of combat brigades and Partisi. units, convene a meeting of the Left SRs - Military. Professional (CPA MLI. f. 564, op. 1, q. 11, ll. 6, 7 vol., 14), completes the group for terroristich. acts against the leaders of germ. Army, with particular attention to the participation of the Left SRs in pr-ve Ukraine - "Povstanch. Nine, "an alliance with the Socialist-maximalists, ukr. Left SRs: take decisions aimed at limiting the carat, the policy of the Bolsheviks, against exclusion from the Councils of the Mensheviks and Right SRs protest against RGM. ANC policies, decrees Ask. dictatorship (May), about a poor-max (June), is preparing a cross, the Congress to protect farmers from the tyranny of the Bolsheviks (ibid., ll. 5-6 ob., 7 vol., 9, 11, 12 ob., 21). June 24th Central Committee decided to put an end to a peaceful respite through a number terroristich. acts and insurrection of the workers and peasants against the occupiers. "We consider their actions as a struggle against the present policy of NOC's Central Committee instructed KAMKOV theoretically justified (in newspapers, leaflets), the need for and purpose of the coming campaign. Regulation does not set the Party on armament. revolt against the Bolsheviks (see: "Red Book of the Cheka, 2 ed., t. 1, Moscow, 1989,. 185-86).
At the 3 rd Congress of the PLSR (June 28 - July 1, 1918, Moscow) reports from the field showed that the province is dominated by good relations between the Bolsheviks and Left SRs, that the majority of the population of Brest-Litovsk, and supports the fight is not going to. But KAMKOV said that Brest - gravedigger World Revolution of that all the ills in the country linked with. AT Roslavetz - opponent Kamkov - remarked: "... if t. Kamkov, not Lenin was the head of Prospect Island, we were not here, but in Turukhansk Territory (CPA IML, f.. 564, op. 1, D. 4, l. 270). In conclude, word KAMKOV said: "... it is necessary to reopen the roar. rising cross-wah and working to restore the violated gains Revolution of. In this struggle, we, the Left SRs, will play a major and crucial. World-tion would come roaring through our rebellion against germ. imperialism "(ibid., d. 5, l. 22, 22 vol.). He was supported by Spiridonov, Karelin, Proshyan. The congress elected a Central Committee of the hardliners against the Bolsheviks line.
At the 5 th All-Russia. Congress of Soviets (4-10 July 1918, Moscow), the Left SRs had only 30,3% of the seats - through Congress to implement the plans of the Central Committee could not. KAMKOV made on July 5 as co-speaker and opponent of Lenin. He said that the ANC policy "disastrous and deadly for Intern. Revolution of and T. Lenin, the Bolsheviks with the rest will be swept away, if he will continue on this path ". By argued that the bread can only give local councils, not requisition. They "only destroy Ask. case ... raise the labor of the cross against the Soviets and the Peasants - "to-you village loafers ... the best way to undermine the root of Owls. power-We will openly declare that not only your units, but also your K-poor, we throw you out ". On behalf of the faction KAMKOV introduced a resolution expressing no confidence in politics SNK (5 th Congress of the Soviets'. Stenografich. report, Moscow, 1918, C. 74-75, 98-100).
July 6 germ. Ambassador in. Mirbach killed. After that, everything went wrong, as conceived CC PLSR. The war has not started, "Left Communists" in the Allies sought, the province, with a few exceptions, Moscow did not support. KAMKOV with a group of members of the CC was in the headquarters detachment DI. Popova - Basic. armament. forces of the Left SRs. Like others. Central Committee members except Proshian), insisted on defense actions. On assurances of socialist revolutionary BA Babino KAMKOV in 1922 (in Butyrki) argued: "... we have not had the intention to dethrone ... on our side was a large part of the people and the army. It is the last we wanted to demonstrate - to them and germ. imperialists "(" The past ". East. Almanac t. 2, Moscow, 1990,. 34). July 6-7, the left-wing Social Revolutionaries was suppressed. KAMKOV and a number of CC members went underground. PLSR stood out from the Populist Party and the Communist Party of the roar. Communism, for rye-distanced themselves from Moscow. events and called for cooperation with the Bolsheviks. At the 4 th Congress of the PLSR (2-7 October. 1918, Moscow) for a response on July 6 had Kamkov, Karelin and Proshyan not revising their beliefs. KAMKOV said that when the world will come roaring-tion, not the Bolsheviks and Left SRs will have a chance of success and victory "(CPA IML, f.. 564, op. 1, q. 5, l. 91). DA Cherepanov - opponent Kamkov - doubted that in place of the RCP (b) PLSR "for any length of time could tolerate the existence of others. Party, which has placed, obstacles in its way (ibid., l.. 171-72). G.L. Lesnovsky said: "A revolutionary before the explosion ... considering everything, prepares, calculates every detail before blowing. The child is in a terrible impatience to hurry up, angry and stomping her foot "(ibid., d. 5, l. 156). Nevertheless, Congress adopted a resolution Kamkov and elected its Central Committee.
27 Nov.. Revolutionary Tribunal in the Central Executive Committee considered the case of the Central Committee PLSR conspiracy "against the Owls. authorities and the Revolution of ". Of the 14 people. Held on the process, attended only Spiridonov and YV. Sablin. Others, in t.ch. Kamkov, were listed in the "run". The court sentenced 10 people. In t.ch. Kamkov to the conclusion "to the prison with the application to compel, works for three (3) years" (ibid.,. 294-95). In December. 1918 KAMKOV in Lithuania recreated desks. org-tion, then became one of the leaders of Ukr. PLSR.
In January. 1920 in Moscow KAMKOV was arrested, but released in May. In Feb.. 1,921 arrested again. According to his cellmates, KAMKOV was sure that the dictatorship of the Bolsheviks - was doomed, that the struggle of the Left SRs will be remembered by generations. In 1923, exiled in Chelyabinsk, then in Tver, Voronezh: spent 2 years in prison in the case of the mythical "Labor cross party. Since 1933 in exile in the Arkhangelsk. He was arrested in Feb.. 1937, in March 1938, a witness at the trial "Pravotrotskist. antises. Block. August 29. 1938 Military. Top panel. Court of the USSR sentenced to death, the sentence carried out on the same day. In accordance with the law Ros. Federation on October 18. 1991 subject to rehabilitation.