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LIBERIA Michael Isaakovich

( politician)

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Biography LIBERIA Michael Isaakovich
Lieber Michael Isaakovich (cf.. Pham. Goldman) (24 May. 1880, Vilna - October 4, 1937). Genus. the family of a merchant, poet IM. Goldman, who wrote in drevneevr. я¦пT. Graduated from the 7 classes of school. Private teacher. In 1896 joined the P-d. Party of Lithuania. One of the leaders of the Bund from its formation in 1897. First arrested in 1899. In 1900 he emigrated, entered Zagray. to-t Bund. At the 2 nd Congress of the RSDLP (1903) led a delegation of the Bund, has held the position antiiskrovskuyu. Since 1904 tsp. Central Committee of the Bund. Participant Revolution of 1905-07, member of. Executive Committee of St. Petersburg. Council. At the 4 th of Kutuzovsky. (1906) and 5-m (1907) Party Congress represented the Bund: the 5-th congress elected a member of. RSDLP: "liquidator". In 1912 participated in the August. Conf. Mensheviks. During the 1-st world. War Defencist ". Heckel. once arrested and link. In 1911 he emigrated again.

After the February. Revolution of 1917 on arrival in the capital elected a member of. Executive Committee of the Petrograd. Council RDA: head of human. the wing Bund and the Mensheviks. At the 10 th Conference. Bund (April) to report on the war called for the defense of the country and backed time. Prospect Island, but the participation in it with the-d. At Vseros. meeting of Council delegates on behalf of the RNC Menshevik. faction announced a resolution to the paradise-called Provisional. Prospect of "... to take further steps along the way, on to-ing it rose, and in accordance with the new situation created by Russian. roar-tion. appeal to the warring countries with a proposal to declare readiness to conclude peace on the basis of the renunciation of annexations and indemnities and recognition for all the peoples right to self-determination "(" Proceedings of the Petrograd. Council ", 1917, April 7.). April 13. elected member of. Office of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd. Council. June 1 at the general meeting of the SA-E-delegates to the 1 st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets, the RNC said that "Russia does not imperialistich. policy "that can stop the war only through Intern. conference that "the calls of Trotsky and Lenin to the Social Revolution of" utopian ( "Roar-tion 1917, t. 3,. 11). Basic Fixes. cause of the crisis, to-rum was the country saw that '... we in Russia there is no organized political class, fully self-determined. U-we got the tragic. crossing two roar-tion: the bourgeois and the nascent social, the tragic. intermixture of nationalism and internationalism - these are the true cause of the crisis "(Izvestia Petrograd. Council ", 1917, June 3).

Participated in the preparation of 1-st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC (3-24 June), on to the rum-June 4 on behalf of the executive committee of the Petrograd. Council outlined his tactics in relation to time. pr-vu: it is "... had two challenges ... war, to-heaven is a chapter. obstacle to the strengthening of the new regime in Russia, that it was as soon as possible ... eliminated ... Eng. roar. Democracy at the conference of the Soviets definitely say: she does not believe in such an outcome of the war, to-ing determines the victory of one coalition over another ... "(" 1 st "Congress of Soviets", t. 1,. 47), "war mozhe be finished only a victory for a coalition of labor democracy in all countries of the coalition against the imperialists of all countries ... Provisional Policy. Prospect Island, presented Miliukov, was the policy, going counter to that ... in internal ... [policy-authors] ... in the center of weakened attention to the issue of democratization of internal. system in Russia ... the establishment of such local authorities, the government is a strong confidence of its broad drug. masses, lack reshitenyh activities in this field, production in prepared two crisis. Roar. country could not wait ... commissioners, appointed to the rye-pr-tion, left to sit, and to create a single imperious org-tion: National Council RD. ... blame for this situation lies not in the roar. democracy ... "(ibid.,. 48 ):"... the field then began plundering roar. authorities, witnesses to-cerned, we are now ... it weakened the center and increased the centrifugal force Revolution of ... we are not afraid of this strong, powerful roar. authorities ... without which the country is impossible to overcome the deadlock in k-rum, it was ... "(ibid.,. 49): "... a time. pr-in ... demanded from the representatives of Socialist. parties share the burden of power and governance of the country ... Outcomes were as follows: ... the transfer of all power in the hands of Burj census pr-va ... Is it conceivable to imagine a politically and psychologically? Burj .... homogeneous Prospect of not existed would Multi base. days and would have collapsed precisely because it would have to be powerless, or strong power - it would have been directed against ch. [ibid,. 50] forces Revolution of ...

... transfer of all power in the hands of the RNC ... attempt to implement this slogan would mean in Vseros. scale is nothing like an experiment in Petrograd, ie. no increase in the power of revolutionary in the country ... and the collapse of the Revolution of complete isolation of the working class ... [ibid,. 51]. This is that the tragic. situation, . k-paradise has been created at the moment, . when our comrades, . stood at the point of view, . - And I joined them, . - That it is not part of the Prospect Island, . are the very course of events, . ... to prevent the rye-they were not able, . were forced to take part in the creation of this coalition,
. Prospect Island, because outside of org-tion of workers' democracy ...- area adventures separate speeches Dep. urban area Vseros. anarchy and military dictatorships ... [ibid,. 52] ... Our task - to rally more closely around the Council of the RNC ... "[ibid,. 53].

June 20 at the Congress in a report on th. condemned the separatist issue. aspirations representatives Dep. nationalities: "It is the liberation of all peoples together, and every people in Russia alone is in complete and absolute dependence on how much the victory of Revolution of consolidated and consolidated. Now, in an atmosphere Revolution of, otd. obpastyam and otd. people may think that if they are now, immediately separated from the general Dem. movement, will try to consolidate its victory only for themselves, it will consolidate in their hands. But in this, comrades, severe error ... if the center will not be fixed irrevocably Revolution of conquest, then no the most radical liberation Dep. People will not be achieved, ... because if the counter-tion will prevail at least for a time, she will kick the old slogans of incitement of one nationality to another, the slogan of the restoration of alleged violations of th. unity "(ibid., t. 2,. 170). To avoid the collapse of the Revolution of calling all parties concerned in th. question to make mutual concessions: "Roar-tion should be united, and to preserve this unity roar. Forces must allow th. question Naib. democratic and Naib. appropriate way "(" Working paper, 1917, 22 June). June 20 was approved by the Congress of the Central Executive Committee member of the RNC, subsequently elected member of. Bureau Comrade. prev. Central Executive Committee.

July 13 at a joint meeting of the Central Executive Committee and the RDA Board Vseros. Council supported the demand KD FI. Dana judge the leaders of the Bolshevik slogan of "Rob the robbers!" and said: "The Bolsheviks joined the darkest elements of the Petrograd. population, to-rye only want to loot "(" Unity ", 1917.14 July). Not tolerate any violence, Liberia, according to the recollections IG. Tsereteli, "one of the most decided opponents of the Bolsheviks, having learned of the order to arrest VI. Lenin and others. leaders of the July events, said: "History will consider us criminals!" and with it came a strong attack of nerves "(" Memories of Feb. Revolution of "t. 2, Paris, 1963,. 411). Prospect of the July crisis, according to Lieber, were as follows: "... to pr-in was based on the employment of the population through rev.-Dem. agencies. Production of the Salvation Revolution of must wage a vigorous struggle for peace and [it is necessary that-authors] his dictatorship was creative, and not a dictatorship of repression "(" Working paper, 1917, 23 July). Inextricably linked to conclude peace with the country's defense: "... unities way - it is a struggle of democracy itself for peace in the Intern. scale. For us, national defense is an inseparable prerequisite for the struggle for peace "(ibid., Aug. 24.).

In Merge, RSDLP Congress (19-26 August.), Representing all flows Menshevism, August 19. argued against a separate peace and for victory in front, on August 20. evaluating the situation of the country, said: "It can now go not to expand the Revolution of, and on consolidation of its, tk. it rolls back ... Power workers and peasants in the Soviets already had cracked. Farmers waste and can not be around to support workers. Gather around the tasks Revolution of Naib. number of forces - here's what you ... "(ibid., Aug. 22.) August 25. congress elected a member of. RSDLP (o). Speaking at the plenary session of the Central Executive Committee and the RDA Board Vseros. Council KD, pointed out: ".. Kornilov conspiracy is a manifestation of weakness of democracy. It failed because it was politically undermined by the Meeting in Moscow. The dictatorship of the proletariat, to the paradise-we are offered, would be ruinous to the Revolution of. Prior to isolate the proletariat rose to unbearable problems "(ibid., Sep 3.). At the meeting of the Mensheviks favored coalition. Prospect of a property-owning classes (the bourgeoisie, Chapter. arr. industrial), but against the participation of the Cadets ( "Day". 1917 Sep 15.). Member Vseros. Dem. meeting. Came from RSDLP (o) in the All-Russia. Dem. Council (Pre-Parliament speech on behalf of the faction with the-d. (combined) in Petrograd. Council of the RNC in response to the slogan L.D. Trotsky's "Long live the direct and open struggle for the roar. power in the country! "Lieber said:" It's one thing to take power in their hands, another - to keep it. Our conscience and responsibility before the country did not allow us to take power. We have never been demagogues, we know that every promise must be fulfilled. And when we saw that in Bourges. country can not create a Socialist. power, we decided to give the people a little of what he sought. And only in this sense that we think participation during. Council of the Republic "(" Proceedings of the RNC, 1917, October 10.). In the Pre-Parliament participated in the commission against the counter-tion and anarchy and strengthen Rep.. system, in the Commission on th. question.

At an extraordinary meeting of the Central Executive Committee and the RDA Board Vseros. Of the CD in the evening on October 24. stated that "Soviet power can not meet all the challenges and promises of rye, it is now giving a broad drug. masses ", and referred calls to the seizure of power" demagogich. game ". Urged not to sacrifice this day tomorrow, and expressed the hope that the Central Executive Committee will not support any venture the seizure of power (ibid., Oct. 25.). October 25. resigned from the Central Executive Committee. 1 Nov., After the adoption RSDLP (o) decisions on negotiations with the Bolsheviks on the establishment of "homogeneous Sots. Prospect Island ", was released from the CC. In exceedingly. Congress RSDLP (o) (Nov 30-December 7.) named in October. revolution a success only the counter-tion, spoke in favor of unification with the Cadets for the fight against the Bolsheviks ( "Forward", 1917, December 6.). Advanced the idea of forming on the basis of local government region. pr-in as outposts against the Soviet. power; led faction defencists "to-heaven refused to designate a representative to the Central Committee.

In Feb-Apr. 1918 appeared in a number of cities with a lecture in publ. outline for-Roy, said in part: "1. The true meaning of "communism" of the Bolsheviks - the seizure and redistribution of property, not Sots. org-tion of production and distribution, 2. The seizure of the banks and indemnities. 3. Nationalization and workers' control. 4. Planting of "socialism" decrees. 5. The destruction of the foundations of Democritus, order: a) relevant to Dem. freedoms and universal izbirat. Right: b) the theory of "joint." State. system: a) the parties. and ochlocracy oligarchy (government by the few and the power of the worst) "(Goldman, Lieber MM., What is social roar-tion? [6.M.], 1918, with. 4). At Vseros. meeting of the Mensheviks (May) re-entered the Central Committee as a representative of the right wing of the Mensheviks. "The thirst for power in this handful of adventurers, Lieber wrote about the Bolsheviks in his book, . - Was so strong, . that in the fight for its retention in their hands they do not stop at no crime "(" Revolution of the crisis and problems of democracy ", . LOTS, . 1918, . with,
. 31). In the years of the Civil. War advocated an alliance with the Entente to fight the Bolsheviks. Since 1923 he has been repeatedly arrested and exiled. From his political activities went, was on the households. work. In March 1937 arrested. October 4. Military. Top panel. Court of the USSR sentenced to death. Rehabilitated the "Case" of 1937 in 1958, according to dp. "cases" - in 1990.

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