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RADEK Carl Berngardovich

( The Party activist, journalist)

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Biography RADEK Carl Berngardovich
photo RADEK Carl Berngardovich
Radek (real name - Sobelson) Karl Berngardovich (1885, Lviv, Austria-Hungary - 19/5/1939, Verkhneuralsk), party activist, journalist. Son Teacher. Educated at the History Department of the Cracow University. In 1902, joined the Polish Socialist Party, in 1903 - in RSDLP, in 1904 - the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania. Collaborated in the Communist press in Poland, Switzerland and Germany. From 1908 belonged coolest Germanskoy wing Social Democratic Party, but after a quarrel with Rosa Luxemburg expelled from party. During the 1-st World War, became friendly with VI. Lenin. After the February Revolution of 1917 members of foreign representations RSDLP in Stockholm, . one of the principal liaison between the leadership of the Party and Germany's General Staff and the organizers of the move Lenin and his associates in Russia through Germany in a sealed train,
. However YA.S. Hanecki organized foreign Communist propaganda publications "Correspondence" Pravda "and" Herald of the Russian Revolution ". After the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks arrived in Petrograd, with the Nov.. 1917 Head. Department of External Relations of the Central Executive Committee. Since December. 1917 members of the Soviet delegation at Brest-Litovsk, one of the leaders of the Left Communists, the enemy of peace with Germany. At the end of 1919 was a business trip to Germany to support the revolution, was arrested and almost immediately released. In 1919-24 a member of the RCP (b). In 1920 Secretary, 1920-24 Member of the Executive Committee of the Comintern. Collaborated in the national newspapers - in Pravda, Izvestia, etc.. As a journalist, became a symbol of accommodation, customized journalism; was the main commentator on international events and is almost officially considered the best journalist of the communist world. Some time he headed the Communist University of Sun Yat-sen, engaged in the preparation partkadrov for the Far East. At the XIII Congress of the Party said: "We dictatorial party in the petty-bourgeois country". Since 1923, an active supporter of L.D. Trotsky. In 1927 he expelled from the Party XV Congress of the CPSU (b), among other members of the Trotskyist opposition. In January. 1928 special meeting with the board GPU for anti-Soviet activities sentenced to 3 years of exile. In May 1929 released. The summer of 1929, together with EA. Preobrazhensky and I.T. Smilga sent a letter to the CC, where he said about the "ideological and organizational break with Trotskyism". For a long time and talent publicly "confessed" in the press. In January. 1930 restored CPSU (b). The press branded the Trotskyists, rolling up insulting nicknames and outright lies. Radek has always been the brightest and most talented representative of the Communist journalism, while in bad faith, he excelled all his colleagues. That's how he wrote in 1934 about Stalin: "The concise, calm, like a rock, the figure of our leader came a wave of love and trust, followed a wave of confidence that there. on Lenin's mausoleum, met the future headquarters of the victorious World Revolution. 16/9/1936 arrested, the investigation has agreed to make any disclosures and statements made against anyone. As one of the main accused was brought to an open trial of "parallel anti-Soviet Trotskyite Center". Became the central figure in the process, tk. started to give very detailed testimony about his "conspiratorial activities", while calling the conspirators huge number of party leaders, in t.ch. and those who had not yet been arrested. He gave extensive testimony against their "accomplices" in the process. Although increasing number of actors were shot. Radek, perhaps in gratitude for obedience, 30/1/1937 sentenced to 10 years in prison. In their final statement said: "I am fighting not for his honor, I lost her, I am fighting for the recognition of the truth of the testimony that I gave". The camp was killed by criminals. In 1988, rehabilitated.
To use material from the book.: Zaleski KA. Stalin's empire. Biographical Encyclopedic Dictionary. Moscow, Veche, 2000

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Radek (cf.. Pham. Sobelson) Karl Berngardovich (1885, Mr.. Lviv - May 19, 1939, Verkhneuralsk). From the teacher's family. For participation in not easy. uchenich. circles excluded from school: in 1902 exams as external candidates gimnazich. course. He graduated from the East. Dept., Cracow Zap, studied in Berne and the University of Leipzig-max. Since 1902 tsp. Polish, SOC. Party (PPP), since 1903 tsp. RSDLP, since 1904 tsp. party, Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, then part of the RSDLP. In 1903-17 worked in pour CHF., Germ. etc.. S. d'. Press. Participant Revolution of 19054) 7 (Warsaw). Since 1908 leader of the left wing of the germ. S. d'. Party. In the 1 st world. war served internationalist position; party Zimmerwald (1915) and Kienthal (1916) Intern. conferences, was a union Zimmerwald St. E-internationalists.

After the February. Revolution of 1917 members Zagray. Mission RSDLP in Stockholm, forged ties with SA-E-internationalists number of countries, assisted the return of political refugees in Russia. Joint. with YA.S. Hanecki organized bulleting "Correspondence Truth" for information Zap.-Europe. S. d'. about events in Russia, then - the weekly Bulletin Eng. Roar-tion ". Receiving news of the July events in Petrograd, July 9, Joint. with Hanecki and VV. Vorovsky publ. in a number of Swedish. Newspaper letter to-rum stated: "Time. Prospect in Petrograd, made up of representatives of the landlords and capitalists, petty bourgeoisie and the social-patriots, tried to strangle the flow of blood mass movement in the ranks of Russian. Army and Russian. proletariat. To hide the fact that the social-patriots are not in the least inferior to the tsarist government and the capitalists, -. they concocted a plot against the Bolsheviks, thrusting their leaders as agents of Germany, and encroach on freedom of the existence of the avant-garde Russian. Revolution of the pretext of combating espionage "(" Roar-tion 1917, t. 3,. 168). In a letter refuted the charges brought against VI. Lenin and the Bolshevik Party.

After October. Revolution of the arrival in Petrograd in Nov.. Head. Division Center. Europe NCID and concurrently. Head. Division external. Relations of the Central Executive Committee. Nov 8. in Pravda publ. report on

Zagray. Delegation RSDLP (b) and on the international situation, the same day, made a presentation on the Intern. situation at a meeting of the Petrograd. Council RDA. 23 Nov.. at a meeting of the PC Party said: "We have always put forward the prospect of Intern. rebellion and we were not mistaken ... Before the war, the workers of Germany thought that the peaceful conquest of the majority in the Reichstag decree can introduce socialism. And now ... roar-tion in Germany was inevitable ... Russia is now showing the way drug. masses of the world. Once negotiations began on the world, then it. Prospect will not be able to move their buildings in Russian. tion Revolution. But ... conditions of peace, to ask him-rye. pr-in would be unacceptable to us ... to unload the front, but at the same time hold the front, ie. leave to protect the Revolution of a strong army ... The fate of Russian. Revolution of will be solved not only in Russia but also throughout Europe ... The danger is that drug. mass is not pushing us to the world, to-ing is not acceptable ... We need to talk to all of Russia that the world is not yet that we should still hold. When we say this openly, then we have nothing to fear that the masses do not understand us "(" The first legal PCs of the Bolsheviks in 1917, M-L., 1927,. 361-62). In December. member of the mixed Russian-germ-Austria. Commission on Prisoners of War.

Since December. member owls. delegation at the peace negotiations with Germany at Brest-Litovsk. Was against the conclusion of peace in the germ. conditions. One of the leaders of the "Left Communists". Lenin in a letter to Radek expressed fundamental disagreement with his position, asked the delegation to present Radek its position on this issue (see: VI. Lenin. п-пTп+пЁя-. Chronicle, t. 5, Moscow, 1974,. 203). January 25. 1918 publ. the gas. "Social Democrat" (Moscow) st. "Brest-Litovsk, in a swarm, he wrote:" The new campaign it. imperialism in the interior of Russia because of its poured, aimlessness, and even danger, to-eq it threatens him, imperialism, we firmly believe, is impossible "[" 7-th extraordinary congress of the RCP (B.). Stenografich. Report, M '1962,. 374-75) In Feb-March, during the offensive germ. troops tsp. K-ta roar, the defense of Petrograd: tsp. RSDLP (b). Affairs. 7-th Congress of the RCP (b) (6-8 March 1918) of the Petrograd. org-tion. In his speech, said:

If you now enclose this world, against to-cerned, I protest, I would consider it a great misfortune ... If you now do, yet no betrayal and shame will not, tk. everyone will understand that we are defeated. If you have done it without loss, without our defeats, then, comrades, it would be shameful world: but now everyone can assess the situation, seeing our weakness in military. respect "(ibid.,. 59): "not signing this world now, we can still defend themselves with a clear conscience: this is not treason, either Polish, Latvian, working ... If we sign the peace terms and accept them, then, hearing the call of help, we will be forced to keep silent. Then we will say: "You called us to fight, and now it left the vulture. imperialism to the wolves ". We have the court hear the shooting of our fellow-partisans, and will be forced to keep silent. It's not treason, but the fact that you are seriously hurting the proletarian movement ... The working class will be corrupted by you, because you are called to battle, and immediately dissolved the home. There is nothing more dangerous than the illusion after the defeat ... I think that in this fatal mistake, for to-Rui Comrade. Lenin would have to pay, rather than an act of Brest "(ibid.,. 61).

Introduced by the Congress candidate. the Commission on the Revision of the Party Program. In November., After the beginning of germ. Revolution of illegally traveled to Germany as a member of owls. delegation to the Congress of Soviets, took part in the org-tion 1 st Congress of the Communist Party of Germany, was arrested.

In December. 1919 returned to the Owls. Russia, was at the party. work. In 1927 he expelled from the Party's 15 th Congress of the CPSU (b) as a Trotskyist party, the opposition. In January. 1928 A special meeting of the Bar of the OGPU accused of anti-Soviet activities and sentenced to 3 years of exile. In May 1929 released. In 1930, reinstated in the party. In Sept.. Arrested in 1936 and 30 January. 1937 Military. Top panel. Court of the USSR sentenced to 10 years in prison. Died in prison. In July 1988 rehabilitated.

Used materials B.YA article. Khazanova in the book.: Politicians Russia 1917. Biographical Dictionary. Moscow, 1993.

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Radek (cf.. Pham. Sobelson) Karl Berngardovich (1885, Lviv - 1939, Verkhneuralsk) - cos. desks. and State. figure. Genus. Domestic teacher. Participated in the social-democratic circles of 14 years and was expelled from school, but was able to pass the exam for grammar school and do an external course in 1902 at the historic Dept., Cracow Zap. In the same year became a member of the Polish Socialist. Party. In 1903 joined RSDLP. In 1904, in search of jobs and opportunities to continue their education went to Switzerland, then to Germany, studied at the Leipzig University of Bern and the field and has worked in the Social-Democratic press. Participated in the roar. 1905 - 1907, while in Warsaw. He was associate NI. Bukharin, Dzerzhinsky, IN. I. Lenin. After the February roar. 1917 was a foreign representations RSDLP in Stockholm and was negotiating with the German authorities about the possibility of returning the roar. emigration through Germany to Russia. After the October Revolution he returned to Petrograd, worked in the Commissariat of Foreign Affairs and External Relations department in charge of the Central Executive Committee. Belonged to the "Left Communists" and opposed the signing of the Brest-Litovsk. Learning about the November roar. 1918 in Germany, illegally went there, participated in the organization of the Congress of the Communist Party of Germany and was arrested. At the suggestion of VI. Lenin, Radek was elected in absentia in the RCP (b). In December. 1919 returned to Russia and became a major figure in the Comintern. After the death of VI. Lenin, Radek was accused of "left deviation" and at the XV Congress in 1927 expelled from party. In 1928 it as a "Trotskyite" was exiled to Tomsk. In 1929, after a penitential letter, Radek was reinstated in the party and, after returning from exile, he worked in the gas. Izvestia. In brilliant style articles and essays extolled I.V. Stalin and his genius, obligingly branded "a gang of bloody murderers" G.E. Zinoviev and L.B. Kamenev, requiring them to death penalty. He was arrested in 1936 and after the confessions of Japanese spies plotting to kill Stalin, etc.. was sentenced to 10 years in prison. He was killed by criminals in a prison cell. Rehabilitated in 1988.

Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.

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Karl Radek Berngardovich (Sobelson) (1885-1939). Born in Lviv, in the Austrian Galicia. He began his political activity in Poland, where he was a member of SA-d. Poland and Lithuania. Since 1904 - Member SDKPiL. In 1906 he was arrested in Warsaw for his revolutionary activities, together with Leo Yogishes (Tyszka) and Rosa Luxemburg. Moving to Germany, joined the leftist-radical movements in Germany the Social-Democrats, led by Rosa Luxemburg. As a result, for its bright revolutionary line, was expelled from Germany. War found to. Radek in Switzerland, where he lived after the expulsion from Germany. On the issue of war taken a revolutionary internationalist position. A party Zimmerwald (1915) (worked closely with Lenin and Zinoviev in organizing and preparing this conference) and Kienthal (1916) conferences, . which was blocked with the Russian Bolsheviks, . opposing trends compromising much of the delegates,
. After the February Revolution was trying to get to Russia, but there has not been omitted by the Interim Government, as a "dangerous element". Settling in Stockholm, K. Radek on behalf of U. K. Russian Bolshevik Party, as its representative, maintained contact with foreign internationalist-revolutionary circles. In October 1917 came to Russia and became part Radek K. P. Trotsky was accompanied to the talks in Brest-Litovsk, occupying the position of "Left Communists". Participated in the revolution 1918-19 GG, helping to unite all the factions included in the Communist Party Germanskuyu January 1, 1919. .- In 1919-1924 he was a member of the RCP (b), a member of the Presidium of the Comintern Executive Committee, in 1920 secretary of the ECCI. In 1922, Mr.. was a delegate of the Comintern in the conference three Internationals. In the years 1924-1927 .- Member of the USSR Central. Participated in the United Opposition, together with Trotsky and Zinoviev. He was expelled and the party at the XV Congress and exiled to the Urals. In May 1929 wrote a penitent letter to Izvestia. Subjected to repression, was posthumously rehabilitated.

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From the speech CB Radek at the IX Conference of the RCP (b)
September 22, 1920, Mr..

The Central Committee was not a single friend, who basically spoke against the need to take up arms to help the Polish workers to organize workers and peasants' government. None of us is on the pacifist point of view. So I am saying that there were no fundamental differences regarding the admissibility of an offensive war is not. The differences were only exist in assessing the international situation, . and when I had to speak with his comrades of the decision of the Central Committee, . I have always proceeded from the position, . that neither in Germany, . or France, . nor in England, we do not stand so immediately before the revolution, . that if we invaded Poland, . then Germany will rise and so,
. No such measure, which would allow it to take into account exactly. But from what he actually said t. Lenin, it follows that the evaluation of the international situation was wrong (...) At the core of our error lay reassessment of maturity of the revolution in Central Europe. (...)

. The bayonet is good, if need be to help some of the revolution, but for the provisions of groping in a country, we have another weapon - Marxism, and for this we do not have to send the Red (...) I definitely think that the problem was.

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