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Spiridonov, Maria Alexandrovna

( The leader of the Left SRs.)

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Biography Spiridonov, Maria Alexandrovna
photo Spiridonov, Maria Alexandrovna
Spiridonov Maria (1884, Tambov - 1941, Medvedev's Forest, ca. Eagle) - leader of the Left SRs. Genus. a noble family of collegiate secretary. She graduated from Tambov school, studying in a swarm-in 1900 - 1901 joined the Socialist Revolutionary Organization. She worked as clerk in the provincial Assembly of the Nobility. In 1905 was arrested for participating in the demonstration, but released. In 1906, mortally wounded colonel of gendarmes, GN. Luzhenovskogo sentenced to death for Revolutionaries brutal suppression of peasant unrest. Was arrested, severely beaten in police custody, her naked body hushing cigarette harassed in the car on the way to Tambov by the officers who arrested her. Case Spiridonova received wide publicity and great public importance. Assize Moscow. District Military Court sentenced Spiridonova to death by hanging, commuted to perpetual hard labor, to-Rui she was serving in Nerchinsk. It was released in March 1917 by the Minister of Justice п-.пг. Kerensky and proceeded to active his political work in Chita. In May, arrived in Moscow, where he began to play a major role among the Left SRs. Becoming part of the Organizing Bureau of the left wing of the party, worked at the Petrograd organization served in the army, among the workers, calling for an end to the war, the transfer of land to the peasants and the authorities - the Soviets. She has worked in the gas. "Land and Freedom", was the editor of J.. "Our Way", was a member of the editorial board of the gas. Banner of Labor ", delivered keynote addresses. In October. 1917levye SRs entered the Petrograd Revolutionary Military Committee and actively participated in the October Revolution, on the II All-Russia. Soviet Congress voted for the decrees on peace and on the ground and together with Spiridonova became part of the Central Executive Committee. However VI. Lenin was not able to convince the Left SRs, including Spiridonov, to join the Owls. Government. Assuming the need for cooperation with the Bolsheviks, tk. "For them, attending mass, derived from a state of stagnation, Spiridonov was confident that the influence of the Bolsheviks on the people is short-lived. Rudeness and anger is justified at the time of the barricade fighting in Russia, but not suitable for the near future, the world's "social revolution", in a swarm-Left SRs will occupy a worthy place. Spiridonov was elected chairman of the Emergency and II Vseross. Peasant Congress, worked in the CEC and the peasant section of the All-being, according to John Reed, the most popular and influential woman in Russia ". When in November-December. 1917 Left SRs entered Sovnarkom, strengthening Bolshevik position, Spiridonov not become People's Commissar only because her work in the CEC the SR leadership considered it more important. Spiridonov supported VI. Lenin on the question of Brest-Litovsk peace and rejected the appeals of those who proposed to start a roar. war against imperialism germanskogo. The break with the Bolsheviks came to the decrees of the Central Executive Committee in May-June 1918 (About food dictatorship of the Committees of Poor Peasants, on the death penalty). Spiridonov accused the Bolshevik Central Committee to replace the "socialization" of land "nationalization" in the organization and supply detachments plantation committees existed. The last of the Left SRs Spiridonov moved to polit. opponents of the Bolsheviks and began to speak out against the Brest peace, to-ing previously supported. Spiridonov had actively participated in the Left Socialist-Revolutionary mutiny of 6 - July 7, 1918i was sent to prison in the Kremlin ( "I'm twelve years of struggling with the king, and now I put the Bolsheviks in the royal palace"). Managed to convey the will of the "Open Letter to the CC of the Bolshevik Party, in a rum-accused their opponents in the destruction of Soviet power, the government workers, condemned the" Red Terror "(" You'll soon find yourself in the hands of your Cheka, you probably already in its hands. There you and the road "), called the policy of Lenin, Sverdlov, Trotsky's" genuine counter-revolution ". In November 1918 the Supreme Revolutionary Tribunal in the All Spiridonova sentenced for taking part in the mutiny to a year in prison, but, taking into account the "special merits before the revolution", pardoned and freed her. Continued active polit. activities against the "oligarchy of the Bolsheviks'. In February 1919, was again arrested. By decision of Moscow. Revolutionary Tribunal, isolated from the political and social activities for the year, sent to the Kremlin Hospital, where running through the SR Central Committee and was in hiding. In 1920, again arrested and released on bail of one of the leaders of the SRs, that she will never engage in political activities. She lived in the Moscow region Malakhovka under the supervision of the Cheka. In 1923 he unsuccessfully attempted to flee abroad and was sentenced to 3 years in exile. Was ill with tuberculosis and material needed. In 1931 again sentenced to 3 years in exile. This period, then extended for 5 years, was serving in Ufa. Spiridonov married, worked as an economist-planners and completely withdrew from political activity. In 1937 she was arrested and sentenced to 25 years in prison. In Sept.. 1941 during the evacuation of prisoners Spiridonova the sentence of the Supreme Court of the USSR was shot. In 1990 and 1992 rehabilitated.

Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.

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Spiridonov Maria (October 16. 1884, Tambov - 11 Sept. 1941, Medvedev's Forest, near the Eagle). Of the nobility. Genus. Family collegiate adviser. In Tambov school in 6 th grade joined in the work of the local SR Org-tion. In 1902 left the 8 th grade school (by others. version, was excluded for political unreliability). She worked as clerk in the provincial Assembly of the Nobility. Since 1905 member of the combat brigade. First arrested for taking part in a demonstration in 1905, the penalties are not incurred.

January 16. 1906 to the decision to the Tambov SRs Univ committed terroristich. act, mortally wounded colonel of the gendarmes, the early. security otryatsa GN. Luzhenovskogo, suppressor of peasant unrest in Tambov Province. At the police station Spiridonov stripped naked, subjected to severe beatings and tortures, and then in the car on the way to Tambov abused by her arresting officers. Case Spiridonova received international publicity and there has been considerable public. resonance. March 12, 1906 a visiting session of the Moscow Military District Court sentenced Spiridonova to death by hanging, commuted to perpetual hard labor, to-Rui she was serving in Nerchinsk prisons.

As a result, Febr. Revolution of 1917 was released by order of п-.пг. Kerensky's on March 3 with the name of Spiridonova involved in creating in Chita for the SR-ta, standing on the positions of internationalism and perfectionism. Until ser. May Spiridonov participated in the Chita Council RDA. May 13 after a speech Spiridonova Chita executive committee of the Council decided to abolish Nerchinsk prison.

May 31, arrived in Moscow as a delegate from the Transbaikal Region. at the 3rd congress of AKP. Was elected to the honorary presidium of the Congress. Spiridonova candidacy was put forward for election to the Central Committee of the AKP, but the required number of votes did not quite. During desks. Congress joined Spiridonova le SUSTAINABLE wing of the AKP. Became part of its Organizing Bureau, was elected to the North. Region. to-t, who was under the influence of the Left SRs. Participated in the 1-st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets KD. Elected to the Board Vseros. Of the CD from the 12-th army. In June, joined in the activities of Petrograd. org-tion of the SRs and beginning to cooperate in organ North. to-ta - gas. "Land and Freedom". July 4, according to F.F. Raskolnikov Spiridonova welcomed the Kronstadt sailors, who arrived in Petrograd to take part in armed. antipravitelstv. demonstration (see: FF Raskolnikov, Kronstadt and St. Petersburg in 1917, 2 nd Ed., M, 1990,. 132). In August. 7 th Council of the Party included in the list of mandatory Spiridonova the AKP candidate for election to the inaugural. Coll. In Aug-Sept. Spiridonov participated in the work of the lips. congresses and conferences AKP. August 16. in Petrograd. Lip. Congress delivered a speech on sovr. under her editorship began to come out w. "Our Way", in the first issue published a software item. "The tasks of the revolution", which became a sort of "guide to action" for the left wing of the AKP: "The revolutionary socialism - this measurement, which must be marked all acts of socio-... - Stated in the article - From this perspective, our program can not be changed and should not adapt to the conditions of time and place, on the contrary, before it must be raised every reality ... At the present time to assert effective theoretically and practically, . that our revolutionary bourgeois-tion, . collaborate with the bourgeoisie in the field of political and economic - is a means to strengthen the shaky completely bourgeois system, . means helping him survive the years, . tens of years on the bent shoulders of the working class ..,
. Socialist Revolutionary Party is headed social revolution, . its program in its implementation detonates one of the solid foundations of the present system (tenure), . violates one of the sacred principles of the capitalist system - private property ..,
. And ... Socialist Revolutionary Party, . pressure filled right wing philistine, . nothing to do with socialism without elements, . deviates farther from his one true path - the close and inseparable connection of unity with the people ..,
. it includes in its tactics of measures and principles, not only sanctified the general principles of our program, but sharply contradict them, encroaching on their logical and moral integrity ". The same article gave an appraisal of government policies, and further defined the line of the SGP acceptable to Spiridonova. "The policy official of the ruling circles endlessly moved away from the politics of the people, both outside and inside, and the Socialist Revolutionary Party had nothing to do there ... But in all the sorrowful ways of Russian and world life our place ... be determined in light of our ideas in the spirit of our program - always under the banner of socialism is always a revolutionary method, always through the people, the people and for the people "(with. 4-12).

During the Kornilov revolt Spiridonov tried to liaise with RSDLP (b), sharply criticized the policy of the Central Committee of AKP, publicly declaring that salvation Revolution of a transfer of power to the workers and peasants. During this period Spiridonova performed with sharp attacks on the policy ACCESSED. Prospect Island and the Board Vseros. Council KD. According to a member of the Board GK. Pokrovsky, she publicly stated: "If farmers do not pass the landlords' land, it was only thanks to corrupt bureau, has entered into the strike with Kerensky and corrupt bourgeoisie" ( "Year of Russian. Revolution of (1917-1918 gg.). Sat. Art., M., 1918, with. 431 Similarly, it strongly protested against the imposition of the death penalty. Sep 10. Spiridonov was elected to the Petrograd. City Committee of the AKP, came to the editorial board of its authority gas. "Banner of Labor". Sep 15. elected Affairs. Petrograd. Council. As a delegate of the Executive Committee of All-Russia. Council KD participated in the Dem. meeting; on it Sep 18. in his speech condemned the coalition with the Cadets, on the authority said: "Down with the coalition, and long live the power of the people and the Revolution of!" (see: Bezberezhev SV, MA Spiridonov, in the book: Russia at the turn of the century. East, portraits, MA, 1991,. 342). As a representative of the CD came during. Council Ros. Republic (Pre-Parliament). Elected vowel Petrograd. Gore. Duma.

Insisted on convening of the 2 nd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC, participated in the struggle for Soviet power, but not all agreed with the Bolsheviks. According to NK. Krupskaya, for "a couple of hours before the opening of the Congress VI. Lenin met with Spiridonova etc.. representatives of the Left SRs and tried to persuade them to enter the pr-vo, but the desired result is not achieved (see: NK Krupskaya, Reminiscences of VI. Lenin, Moscow, 1957,. 319). Spiridonov Congress elected to the Presidency. After the Central Committee of the AKP rule out the remainder of the Congress of the left opposition party, called for the convening of Spiridonova Vseros. Congress, the Left SRs. October 28. become a member of the Provisional. Center. Organizing Bureau of the Left SRs. 6 Nov.. elected as a member of. Presidium of the Central Executive Committee: further elected member of. Presidium of the All 3-4-th convocation. 11 Nov.. Exceedingly. Vseros. Congress of Soviets of KD (11-25 Nov.). Spiridonova elected its chairman.

Speaking 15 Nov.. Joint meeting of the Central Executive Committee of the Petrograd. Council and extraordinary. Vseros. Congress of Soviets KD, . Spiridonov said: "Let him know the Russian peasant, . what, . bind himself to the Russian workers, . bind himself to the workers and peasants of France, . England, . Australia and Germany and all the rest of the world, . he does not succeed, not only of freedom and equality, . but even that piece of land, . which is so vital it is necessary ",
. Spiridonov also called for the unity of the Left: "Let the roar of a single. Democrats united front. Leave our arguments ... Long live the fraternal union of workers, soldiers and peasants "(" Minutes of meetings of the Central Executive Committee of Soviets of Workers, Soldiers., Peasant and Cossack affairs. II convocation, M. 1918, with. 65-66). At the plenum of the Central Executive Committee 17 Nov. Spiridonov made a statement that the Left SRs finds it "inappropriate and grossly misleading his political step" SNK decree dissolving the Petrograd. Gore. Duma. At the same time, she stressed the "inevitability" for the Left SRs take part in "creating a responsible to the Center. Perform, to-volume power and within organs of power "(ibid. to 71)

Nov 19. opened Vseros. Congress of the Left SRs, who chose Spiridonova its honorary chairman. In a speech to the Congress 21 Nov. She sharply criticized the hands of the AKP for the separation from the old party. program and stated that this party consists of persons, "alien to socialism". Addressing the Congress, she said: "We need as a young party to win the peasants'. Opposing the "Soviet" democracy "bourgeois", Spiridonov argued: "By the parliamentary struggle, we can not come to socialism" [ "The Protocols of the 1 st Congress of the Party of the Left Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Internationalist, M., 1918, with. 34-351 Spiridonov entered the Central Committee of PLSR. 26 Nov.. opened 2-nd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets CD, races, and then pricking into two parts and selected the two alternatives of the executive committee: headed by "left" was C 'at the head of "right"-VM. Chernov. December 13. Spiridonov was elected an honorary prev. Petrotr. Council. Honorary before. its elected and Vseros. Congress railwaymen acted on it Dec. 14. with speech, she acknowledged "a social. nature "October. Revolution of (cm. Bezberezhev SV, decree. cit., in the book, Russia at the turn of the century., with. 344).

As members to establish. Coll. (from Vladimir izbirat. District) Spiridonova January 5. 1918 took part in its opening. Spiridonova candidacy was put forward in the President to establish. Coll. factions of the Left SRs and the Bolsheviks. Spiridonov (153 votes) lost the elections Chernov (244 votes). But others. Left SRs she left the inaugural. Coll. Speaking on January 6. in Tenishev uch-School, "explained the necessity for the dissolution of the inaugural. Coll., Talked about the role of the Soviets ... and. encouraged fellow working men and women more closely unite around the banner of the Soviet. power "(" Roar. Worker ", 1918. N 1,. 16).

January 7. Spiridonov participated in the 1-st All-Russia. Congress of Trade Unions, electing her to the honorary chairman, and delivered the speech. 10/12 January. held a joint meeting RSDLP (b) and CC PLSR, discussed further tactics. According Spiridonova, "long hours, Multi base. Day was held here in backroom meetings, in endless disputes with the Bolsheviks to reconquer an item of our program "[see: AI Overclocking. Governments, the block of the Bolsheviks and Left SRs (Oct. 1917 - January. 1918), "East. notes ", t. 117, Moscow, 1989,. 1441 Jan. 13. Spiridonov participated in the opening of the 3rd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets, a CD and the same evening came at a joint session of the Congress of Soviets CD and RCD. In her speech, she said: "It is extremely important to gather all the forces of revolutionary Russia, . allow them to create a unified revolutionary whole, . com single continuum of social energy and continue the struggle, . without mercy and without any hesitation, . Rejecting all, . that will occur in the way of our struggle, . which should lead us to the bright realm of socialism ",
. Opposing owls. form of org-tion inaugural. Assembly, she expressed the need to adopt the Soviets "Labor inaugural. Assembly, to-rum should belong in its entirety all performed, and the laws dates. functions, all the solutions to-cerned must be considered equally for all mandatory and immutable law "(" 3rd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets RSKD, P, 1918, with. 45-46). It also urged Congress to pass a law on the socialization of land. Congress at a meeting Jan. 18. without debate, approved the first section of the law and adopted as a basis for the remaining sections. January 27. Joint Central Executive Committee approved the law in general. Among others. cos. leaders signed it and Spiridonov. She penned the preface to the text "Basic Fixes. Law ", published in 1918 Vol-tion of the Left SRs' Roar. socialism. Upon completion of the 3rd Congress of the Soviets led the Board Spiridonov Cross section of the All-in-paradise has assumed many functions of the abolished Board of the CD.

In late. Feb.. Spiridonov participated in several meetings of the All-CC PLSR, as well as joint meetings of the latter with RSDLP (b) on the signing of the Brest Peace. Her position on this issue coincides with the view that part of the Bolshevik Central Committee. k-paradise supported Lenin (see: Bezberezhev SV, decree. cit., in the book.: Russia at the turn of the century ... with. 346). In Article. Letters to the village "Spiridonov outlined the Left SR's views on cross-in:" ... the peasantry in a short time revolutionized so, . without debate and hesitation Peasant Congress went to the Tauride Palace, . to support and endorse the Soviet regime as sincerely and forcefully, . as representatives of the host and the proletariat, "" Third Krestnsky Congress was already a new stage in the thorny and the great historic passage of the peasants to socialism: "The peasants - not only material for history, . not only a relic of the famous building, . to be the deepest sotsiologich,
. transformation, and even the destruction, but the class of the future, a viable and sustainable historically, class, carrying the world and the new system and new truth "(" Our Way ", 1918, No. 1, C. 16-17).

Spiridonov actively participated in the preparation of the 2 nd Congress of PLSR, coming into the Commission for its org-tion and the opening. April 17. Congress elected to the presidium Spiridonov. April 19. She delivered the report on the current situation. Disagreeing with others. Rapporteur (B.D. Kamkov), Spiridonov called the Left SRs and the Bolsheviks to share responsibility for the Brest peace: "Peace was not signed by us and the Bolsheviks: it was signed by poverty, hunger, and the unwillingness of the people - exhausted, tired - fighting. And who among us would say that PLSR, I imagine it is a power, would have done differently than the Bolshevik Party came? "(Banner of Labor", 1918, April 19.). She noted that "currently the most important social fact of our revolution is the land and the land question, and the driving force of our social revolution was the peasantry". "The priority of the day" was, in her opinion, "bring into existence a law on the socialization of the land, as the embodiment of it, has proved to be impossible without the participation of the apparatus of power" (ibid.). Consequently Spiridonova essentially condemned the Left SRs for withdrawal from the central government: "As the party of the class, . People, . PLSR has the right to build a policy based on personal experiences, . in the era of social revolution to play the political game,
. Fall from power with the left-p. betrayal of the cross "(ibid.). However, the position Spiridonova not received majority support. Launched in the Central Committee, she has recused himself, but he was not satisfied; elected to the Central Committee.

Compared with the majority of the members of the CC PLSR it longer than the others advocated a political alliance with the Bolsheviks. But in the period from May to July 1918 in his public speeches Spiridonova strongly condemned the foreign and domestic policies SNK, criticized the agricultural policy of the Bolsheviks, saying that the socialization of land is replaced by the nationalization. However Kamkov Spiridonov was negotiating with members of the executive committee of Roar. internationally-Sots. org-tion Foreign. workers and peasants "on the org-tion anti-German statement on Ukraine. June 24 before. CC session. decided "in the interests of Russian and international Revolution of putting an end to a so-called. respite, "" To this end. - Organize a series terroristich. acts against the most prominent representatives of the germ. imperialism "(" Red Book of the Cheka, t. 1, 2 ed., M. 1989,. 185). To carry out the plan, CC PLSR highlighted the Bureau, to-Roe entered L.B. Golubovskii, IA Mayorov and Spiridonov. The minutes of the meeting, signed Spiridonova, stipulated: "We consider their actions as a struggle against the present policy of the Council of People's Commissars, and in no case as a struggle against the Bolsheviks" (ibid.,. 186).

Held on 28 June the 3rd Congress of the Central Committee PLSR gave freedom of action. Spiridonov expressed at the Congress for the fact that the PLSR became the ruling party. July 4 at the opening of the 5-th All-Russia. Congress of Soviets Spiridonov was elected to the Presidency. July 5 was made at the congress to be reporting on the Cross Section of a rum-questioned its continued existence: "At first we worked hand in hand with the Bolsheviks, often making concessions in the party. issues ... that there was no disagreement. But on the question of the Brest treaty happened controversy ... and since then started a completely different working conditions ... Our section is not given to carry out its projects. She tried to arrange all sorts of obstacles ... I think ... that already in this Congress of the Soviets held the question of the destruction of the Peasants' section ... "(" 5-th All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of workers, cross., Soldiers. and Cossacks' Deputies. Stenografich. report M. 1918, with. 53-54). Spiridonov also sharply criticized Ask. policy of the Bolsheviks, and on the Committees of Poor Peasants expressly stated: "We shall fight on the ground, and the committees of the rural poor do not have a place to be" (ibid.,. 59). She criticized etc.. Events SNK especially the Decree on the death penalty.

In the events of July 6-7, Spiridonov showed maximum activity. Evening of 6 July, with her directly, participation in the headquarters detachment of the Cheka under the command. DI. Popov was arrested F.E. Dzerzhinsky. Then Spiridonov with Golubovskii went to the Congress of the Soviets for the reading of the declaration of the Central Committee PLSR in the murder. Mirbach In the Big T-re under the hands. Spiridonov were meeting the Left SR. In the night from 7 to 8 July Spiridonov was arrested and taken to the guardhouse at the Kremlin. During the interrogation in the investigation. Commission of the Central Executive Committee on July 10 she took the blame for the statement of the Left SRs themselves and testified: "I organized the Mirbach murder case from beginning to end. Blyumkin acting on behalf of my "(" Red Book of the Cheka, with. 268-69). 27 Nov.. Top. roar. Tribunal at the All Spiridonova sentenced to 1 year in prison, "taking into account-specific services to the roar-tion". Nov 29. Bureau of the Central Executive Committee pardoned her, she was released from custody.

In December. 1918 - Feb.. 1919 Spiridonov joined in political activity. Attended the 2 nd Council PLSR, edited desks. w. Znamya. 18 Feb.. 1919 Spiridonov arrested and sentenced Mosk. roar. Tribunal to isolation from society and his political activities for a period of 8 months. April 2. she managed to escape from custody. Turning to the not easy. position, returned to the desks. work and led a minority of the Central Committee, supported the active opposition to the policy of the RCP (b). In October. 1920 Spiridonov was delayed, neck-Roe time spent in the infirmary of the Cheka and the prison psihiatrich. hospital. Since Sept.. 1921 lived in isolation and under the control of the Cheka in the Moscow suburb Malakhovka. Subjected to repression in 1923 and 1924. In 1925 there was a link (Samarkand, then Ufa). In exile, she married IA Mayorov. She worked as an economist-planners and others. households. work. In 1937, again arrested by the NKVD. January 7. 1938 Military. Board Top. Court of the USSR sentenced her to 25 years in prison. Served time in Yaroslavl and Orel prison. Sep 11. 1941 to decisions of the military. Bar Top. Court of the USSR shot. In 1990, rehabilitated in the case of 1941, in 1992 for 1918, 1923, 1924, 1937.

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  • Perhaps it is my babushka.Esli course she had a younger brother, Constantine, who in the early 30's suddenly changing their place of residence and the unstated corollary of their rodstvennikah.Esli you can pottverdit or disprove the existence of a Spiridonova MA. younger brother Spiridonov KA, you are great help me.
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