TOMSK Mikhail Pavlovich( The Party and trade unionist)
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Biography TOMSK Mikhail Pavlovich
Tomsk (real name - Efremov), Mikhail Pavlovich (19.10.1880. Kolpino Petersburg province - 22.8.1936, p Bolszewo near Moscow), party and trade unionist. The illegitimate son of a fitter and seamstress. Educated in three-class primary school. In 1904 joined the RSDLP, Bolshevik. Conducted Party work in Reval and St. Petersburg. Since 1909 member of the Moscow Committee RSDLP, headed by a bureau, engaged in forgery of documents. Repeatedly arrested. In 1917, a member of the executive committee of the Petrograd Committee RSDLP (b), editor of "Metalist", before. Moscow Council of Trade Unions. Since 1919 member of the RCP (b). In 1918-1921 and 1922 - 1929 before. AUCCTU. In 1921, before. Turkestan Commission Central Executive Committee and SNK actually full master revolt in Turkestan. Since 1922 member of the Politburo. In 1924 led the Soviet trade union delegation in London. At the end of 1920. opposed the closure of the NEP and forcing the industrialization and collectivization, which was declared a "right-leaning". At the April Plenum of the CC (1929) severely criticized and "crushed". He admitted his mistakes and said he would conduct "a resolute struggle against all deviations from the Party line and, above all, against the Right deviation", but in May, relieved of his post before. AUCCTU. In 1929-1930 Deputy. prev. Supreme Economic Council, Soviet Union, before. All-Union Chemical Industry. In 1930, removed from the Politburo. Since May 1932 the head. OGIZ (Unified State Publishing House). In 1934, transferred from the members as a candidate member of the CC, CPSU (b). During the open trial of G.E. Zinoviev, L.B. Kamenev and others, when at a meeting of his name was mentioned in their testimony, he shot himself in his apartment. In 1937-1938 found proved his involvement in the anti-Party conspiracy. In 1988, reinstated in the party.
To use material from the book.: Zaleski KA. Stalin's empire. Biographical Encyclopedic Dictionary. Moscow, Veche, 2000
Tomsk (cf.. Pham. Efremov), Mikhail Pavlovich (Oct. 19. 1880, townsmen Kolpino Petersburg province. - August 22. 1936, cottage settlement. Bolszewo, near Moscow). From a poor middle-class families. He graduated from West-great beginning. Gore. uch School (trained at public expense). With 13 years he worked on industrial. Prospect tiyah Petersburg; to 20 years - chromolithograph. Autumn of 1904 came to St. d. movement Bolshevik. Member of the Revolution of 1905-07, member of. Council RD in Revel, arrested in January. 1906, after 4 months. conclusion was exiled to Narymsky region, fled once again engaged in desks. and Prof.. work. In January. 1907 Tomsk was elected to the Petersburg Committee, spring delegate the 5-th (London) Party Congress, supported the position of VI. Lenin on all. In 1909 he participated in the Paris meeting of the expanded edition of the Bolshevik. not easy. gas. Proletarian. From Paris, the Central Committee sent Tomsk to Moscow. In December 1909 arrest in 1911 was sentenced to 5 years in prison. He served in Butyrskaya. The spring of 1916 sent to exile in Irkutsk Province.
After the February. Revolution of 1917 had prepared an appeal to the people Kirensk the fall of the tsarist, organized the production gas. Izvestiya Kirenskogo executive committee, elected to the Committee of NGOs. In mid-April, arrived in Petrograd. Participated in the Petrograd. obschegor. Conf. Bolsheviks (14-22 May.) in the debate on the report of Tomsk Lenin, in particular, said: "We should not talk about revising the program and changing the name of the party, but about how you should lead to an understanding of the unity of the moment ... Dem. dictatorship of the proletariat - this is our foundation. If this is the real content of our revolution, you need to organize this democracy "[" Petrograd. obschegor. and Vseros. Conference RSDLP (b) in April. 1917 '. M-L, 1925, C. 11-12] Tomsk was a new composition of the PC. May 10 to T-elected in Tomsk to perform, commission PCs. May 23 PC decided to create his organ; In. Volodarskij and Tom took up praktich. party to address the issue. An unexpected obstacle was the position of the Central Committee. to-ing urged to set aside the computer and offered to publish the Petrograd. material in the official gazette of the Central Committee discussion ensued, in a swarm-ch. opponents were Tomsk Lenin. Outlined his position Tomsk PC May 30: "The Central Committee is interested in events and articles of general policy and global importance. And work in Peterbugrskom Committee Central Committee directs or manages unsuccessfully ... It's not holding our particular line ... Unanimity does not mean stereotyped. Fundamental differences you may. We want to have a voice, influence and not play the role of a poor relation of the CC ... If you become the point of view of Comrade. Lenin, the experience will show you that you, Central Committee members, naive and good-natured ... Not separatism, but life itself pushes us to publish an independent body ". (First legal Petersburg. to-t the Bolsheviks in 1917, M-LA, 1927,. 120-21). Lenin's resolution was rejected by 16 votes to 12. June 20 PC accepted the proposal to postpone the question of Tomsk at the City Conference, 2 nd Petrograd. Conf. RSDRGKb) beginning on July 1, Tomsk, was elected to the Presidency, has spoken, July 3, made a report on the official gazette of the PC to the opinion of the Tomsk joined the majority of delegates. However, subsequent events made it impossible for publication Bolshevik. newspapers.
During the June crisis, Tomsk reacted to the proposal of the Central Committee to hold a peaceful demonstration on June 10 caution, at this critical moment "in handling the general sentiments of the masses is handling several unknowns" (ibid., p.. 140). June 11 PC heard an explanation of Lenin and G.E. Zinoviev of the reasons for calling off the demonstration. Mn. PC members expressed their dissatisfaction, including Tomsk: "... we, otvetstvetstvennyh workers, undermined faith in the leadership" (ibid.,. 161). However, Tomsk considered inappropriate to make the differences between the CC and the PC outside of the org-tions and offered to get rid of them in their environment.
1-st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC (3-24 June) elected the candidate of the Tomsk. in tsp. VTsIK. In late June, Tomsk attended the 3rd All-Russia. Conf. unions: for her, he saw "two OCH. Practical. Merit: the creation of the first obscheprof. Center and the proclamation of the principle of building alliances to pro-vu "(Tomsk M.. Studies Professor. movement in Russia, 6 ed., M., 1927,. 15).
During the July crisis, Tomsk believed that "taking the initiative in their hands is risky ... we must abide by the decision of the CC, but then he said:" There is no need to rush to the factories and put out the fire, tk. fire is lit not by us, and for all put out, we can not "(" 2 nd and 3 rd Petrograd. obschegor. Conference of the Bolsheviks in July and October. 1917. Minutes and mat-ly ". M-LA, 1927,. 50). Tomsk regarded armament. performance of soldiers and workers on July 3-5 as "a movement for democracy, power is really working for the expansion and deepening of the Revolution of". He noticed that the "Power to the Soviets - this is not the dictatorship of the proletariat and the dictatorship is really working democracy: the proletariat and the cross-va" (Tomsk, Moscow, Petrograd About. events of July 3-5, "Spartacus", 1917,? 7,. 27).
In July, Tomsk ill, and July 20, his family moved to Moscow. In August. began work in the municipal department of Moscow. Council RD. In Sept.. elected as a vowel Simonovskaya District Duma, and in it - before. Bolshevik. fraction. Autumn running for tsp. Inaugural. Coll., But did not. In October. led w. "Moscow. Metalist, where he published several articles.
Oct. 26., When sink. WRC urged the masses to seize power by the Soviets, . at an emergency meeting of representatives of 17 trade unions Tomsk suggested: "recognize the necessity of full active support VRK, . ... vehicles not represent the opponents the SRW, . ... all members of the press not to perform printing laws, . against Soviet power ": supported the call for a strike VRK, . but observed, . that all can not go on strike, . TK,
. "there will hitch a terrible life": the trade unions should organize a speech like this, "that it was orderly and peaceful" ( "Moscow. Council Prof.. Unions in 1917. Protocols ", M, 1927,. 118-24). The proposals were adopted Tomsk. On the night of Oct. 28. Mosk. VRK Tomsk sent to Petrograd, October 29. Lenin heard the report of the Tomsk and promised to help.
After the victory of armament. insurrection in Moscow, Tomsk worked in the restructured Moscow. Board Prof.. Unions (IPTF). December 1. He was elected a member of the executive committee of IPTF, December 11, before. Bureau IPTF. The initiative of Tomsk on December 30. A resolution was adopted: "IPTF considers any sabotage of public performance at the moment against the working class and its achievements and all participants in its overt enemies of the proletariat .-" but because "all of Professor. unions, have embarked upon this path, should be excluded from a family of flying. unions "(ibid.,. 176).
Its position in Professor. Traffic Bolsheviks consolidated at the 1 st All-Russia. Congress of Trade Unions (7-14 January. 1918). January 11. CC RSDRGKb) outlined the composition of the presidium of the All-Tomsk assigned the post of Secretary. In sharp differences (Tomsk was against the proposal G.E. Zinoviev the immediate proclamation of the union state authorities), he agreed to join the executive committee only candidate.
At the 4-th All-Russia. Trade Union Conference (12-17 March, Moscow) Tomsk entered the executive committee as a Liability. Editor Well. "Professional Messenger". October 9. Executive Committee of the All elected Tomsk before. Presidium of the All (they remained until the summer of 1929, with a small break in 1921-22). According to a political opponent of Tomsk - L.D. Trotsky, "Tomsk. was undoubtedly the most outstanding workers, who launched the Bolshevik Party, and perhaps the Russian revolution as a whole. Short, thin, with a wrinkled face, he looked sickly and frail. In fact, years of hard labor and all others. tests found it a great force of physical and moral resistance. For several years he headed the Soviet trade unions, he knew a lot and was able to talk to her in her own language "(L. Trotsky, Portraits of revolutionaries, Vermont, 1988,. 228).
Since 1919 tsp. CC. since 1921 tsp. Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee in April. 1922 tsp. Political Bureau. In late. 1920. Tomsk was removed from the hands-va unions and deprived of real political influence, but until 1934 remained a member of. CC, then candidate. in tsp. CC. In the context of political persecution and mass repressions committed suicide.