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Alexander Shlyapnikov Gavrilovich

( Soviet party and state leaders.)

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Biography Alexander Shlyapnikov Gavrilovich
photo Alexander Shlyapnikov Gavrilovich
Alexander Shlyapnikov Gavrilovich (1885, Mr.. Murom, Vladimir Province. - 1937, Moscow) - cos. desks. and State. figure. Genus. Old Believers in a large middle class family and childhood acquaintance with religious persecution. Early left without a father, Shlyapnikov, in 1895 after graduating from the three classes of Murom Mountains. primary uch-я+п¦, began to perform the unskilled jobs, to help the family. From 1898 he worked at the factory. He participated in the strike movement, in 1901 joined the RSDLP from 1903 became a Bolshevik. Conducted desks. work, actively participated in the roar. 1905. Repeatedly arrested and was in prison. In 1908 he went abroad to communicate with foreign RSDLP. In Geneva, met with VI. Lenin, became a member of the Paris group promoting RSDLP. He continued his work as a turner at the factories in Germany, France, England. In 1909 he joined the French Socialist. Party. Great influence on the world Shlyapnikova has a. M. Kollontai. By 1914 Shlyapnikov wrote a series of art. the party. Questions and Prince. "In the factories of France and Germany". In 1914 with strange instruments returned to Russia, worked in a factory, worked in the party. Print. Since the beginning of World War Shlyapnikov, a staunch internationalist and opponent of the war, the newly immigrated. Organized through Sweden and Finland transports with partners. lit-Roy, along with Kollontai helped Lenin. In October. 1916 returned to Russia and during the February roar. 1917 was the only member of RSDLP operating in Russia, became part of the initiative group for the establishment of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' Deputies, was elected to its executive committee. One of the organizers of the return from abroad of political refugees and VI. Lenin. Actively participated in re-dispersed in the beginning of the war the trade unions. As Delegate 1 Vseross. Congress of Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies, Shlyapnikov was elected a member of the CEC. During the October roar. 1917 became a member of the Revolutionary Military Committee, was elected a delegate to the II All-Russia. Congress of Soviets and became a member of the ANC as Commissar of Labor. In November 1917 supported the view of the need for "all-socialist government" of all parties, . were part of the All, . no support, . but did not leave his post, . adding the duties of the People's Commissar of Trade and Industry,
. Shlyapnikov with I.V. Stalin, having extraordinary powers, was sent to southern Russia that, in Lenin's words, "to pump out the bread". In 1918 he was appointed a member of the PBC Southern Front, chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Caspian-Caucasian Front, then a member of the FAR 16-th army Zap. Front. In 1920, recalled for work in the All. Shlyapnikov opposed L.D. Trotsky, with his idea of the militarization of the working life of the country, took an active part in discussions on trade unions. Shlyapnikov and Kollontai led a group of "workers' opposition", . saying, . that the task of trade unions, is the organization of economic management, . depriving the party of the function, . - View, . severely criticized in the debate and at the Tenth Congress of the RCP (b) Lenin,
. In 1923 Shlyapnikov openly criticized the Central Committee on the economic situation, vnutripart. and a working democracy, then was sent to the diplomatic work. Did not spend long trade representative in France, 1925 in 1925 returned to the USSR. Under pressure from the Politburo was forced to declare that "no factional activity" to no longer be. Before 1929 worked as chairman of the Joint Stock Company "Metalloimport". In 1923 - -1931 were published four book. his memoirs "seventeenth year" - the work subjected to unfair criticism. 1933 Shlyapnikov was expelled from the Party and in 1934 administrative sent to Karelia in 1935 for belonging to the Workers' Opposition "sentenced to 5 years - sentence commuted to exile in Astrakhan. In 1936, again arrested and sentenced by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR shot. Rehabilitated in 1988.

Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.

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Alexander Shlyapnikov Gavrilovich (August 30. 1885, Murom, Vladimir Province., - 2 Sept.. 1937, Moscow). From the middle class. Tsp. RSDLP since 1901, since 1903 Bolshevik. Part. work conducted in St. Petersburg, Murom, Sormovo, H. Novgorod, Moscow. Participant Revolution of 1905-07. In 1907 tsp. RSDLP. Repeatedly been arrested. Since 1908 Emigration. In late. 1909 entered into Franz. Sots. Party, participated in the French. labor movement. Later tsp. P-d. Party of Germany. In April. 1914 returned to Russia. He worked as a turner at the W-DAH Petersburg. Doing work with the Duma-d. faction and the Petersburg Committee, has worked in the gas. "The Truth" and "Social Democrat". During the 1-st world. War "internationalist". Author released July 19, 1914

RSDLP leaflets to the workers and soldiers, ended with an appeal: "Down with war!" Down with the tsarist government Long live the revolution! " ( "Leaflets of the St. Petersburg Bolsheviks. 1902-1917 ", t. 2, L. 1939, C. 114). In Sept.. 1914 and left for Sweden on a mission to form a link with the PC RSDLP, with a-d. parties etc.. Countries. In 1915 he co-opted into RSDLP. "Having come from a country at war, wrote to W. in greeting Swede. Congress of Socialist Youth - I am proud to say that soznat. workers in Russia are still hostile to the war, did not bend their class. banners and continue the struggle "(CPA IML, f.. 17, op. 1, D. 1782. l, 3). In late. 1915 he returned to Petrograd, led by Eng. Central Bureau. In early. 1916 in connection with the threat of arrest emigrated in Nov.. 1916 he returned to Petrograd, restored Eng. Bureau of the Central Committee, was his withdrawals. leader.

In Feb. Revolution of 1917 to the beginning. March Member of the Presidium of the Bureau RSDLP. He was a member of the initiative group to create Petrograd. Council RD, 27 Feb.. elected to the Executive Committee of the Petrograd. Subsequently, he wrote that on behalf of the executive committee "... from 27 Feb.. participated in the org-tion of workers' militia, arming the workers ... The author adopted the Vyborg District Council's decision on the RNC Org-tion Working Guard "(ibid., f.. 70, op. 4, q. 387, l. 131-32). March 1, made a presentation on current events and tasks of the Party on the meeting of the Bolshevik capital, was elected a member of the Provisional. PC Bolsheviks. One of the organizers of the return from abroad of political refugees, meeting VI. Lenin's April 3. to Article. Beloostrov and Finlyansky station. Affairs. 7 th (April) Vseros. Conf. RSDLP (b). Since April. prev. Board Petrograd. Metalworkers' Union, in June before. CC Vseros. Metalworkers Union. At the 1 st Conference. factory committees in Petrograd and its environs (30 May - 3 June) elected member of. Central Council of Factory Committees in Petrograd, on the 3rd All-Russia. Conf. Trade Unions (June) - a member of the Provisional. Vseros. Central Council (Bureau) of trade unions. According to NN. Sukhanov, Shlyapnikov, "experienced conspirator, an excellent technician and organizer of good practices Professor. movement, -. was not at all a politician ... no independent thought, nor the ability nor the desire to understand the specific nature of the moment did not have this Liability. leaders of the influential labor org-tion "(NN Sukhanov, Notes on the Revolution of t. 1. M., 1991,. 79). Conducted negotiations with On-tion factory owners in Petrograd, to-rye in the signing of the tariff agreement. At the 6 th Congress of the RSDLP (b) on behalf of the Center, Bureau of Trade Unions called on delegates to "more closely link the work of the Party with the work of Professor. Unions GB-th Party Congress (b) '. Protocols, 1958, with. 105) Member State. meeting (12-15 August). and Democritus. meeting (14-22 Sept.)..

October 16. at an expanded meeting RSDLP (o), consider the question of armament. Restore., said that in the metropolitan Professor. Metalworkers' Union, Bolshevik influence prevails, but the Bolshevik. performance is not a popular rumors of this have caused even panic. Mood and Russia have dominated the Bolshevik metal; ... but consciousness with opportunities to organize production of No "(" Protocols RSDLP (b), with. 96). Affairs. 1-st All-Russia. Conf. factory committees (17-22 oct.), elected member of. Vseros. Central Council of Factory Committees. Tsp. Petrograd. VRK. October 25. initiated Shlyapnikova board Vseros. Metal Worker's Union has allocated 50 thousand. Rub. Petrograd. VRK, provided at his disposal techn. staff of government, appealed to the metal worker to unite under the slogan "All Power to the Soviets."

Affairs. 2-nd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC. In the first part of SNK Commissar of Labor. Supported the statement of People. Commissioners at a meeting of the All 4 Nov.. resignation in protest against the termination by a decision of the Central Committee talks on the formation of "homogeneous Sots. Prospect Island, "but made a postscript:" By acceding to the overall assessment of the polit. moment on the need for agreement, but I find it intolerable addition to the responsibilities and duties "(" Protocols RSDLP (b), with. 137), remained at his post and. In addition, until 15 January. 1918 served as commissar of trade and prom-sti. Struggled against sabotage and civil servants strike. Participated in the creation of the workers' control and transform it into the Supreme Council of the People. x-va.

In January. 1918 cases. 1-st All-Russia. Congress of Trade Unions (Petrograd, 7-14 January.) and 1-th (uchred.) Vseros. Congress Vseros. Metalworkers' Union, advocated strict discipline in the pro-ve and the transition to piecework wage. Following the breakdown of Brest-Litovsk negotiations before. Central Board for the evacuation and unloading of Petrograd. At the 7 th extraordinary congress of the RCP (b) (March) elected candidate. in tsp. CC. Later in the Soviet military, trade union and economic work, one of the leaders of the Workers' Opposition ". In 1933, expelled from the CPSU (b). In 1935 for belonging to the Workers' Opposition "exiled. In 1936, arrested on the same charges, Sep 2. 1937 Military. Top panel. Court of the USSR sentenced to death. Rehabilitated in 1988.

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