Theodosius I Flavio( Roman Emperor)
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Biography Theodosius I Flavio
Flavius Theodosius I - Roman emperor in 379-395 years. Genus. January 11. 347 g. + 17 January. 395
Theodosia was born in northern Spain. His father, Honorius, was a commander in the army Valenta and led his descent from the Emperor Trajan (Victor: 'On the life and morals of the Roman emperors', 48). In his youth Theodosia received a good general education and military science comprehended in the army his father. Under his command, he fought against the Scots and Saxons in Britain, and then against the Moors in Africa. His courage and ability to captain a very early age were marked by the Emperor (Gibbon: 26). According to Marcellinus, Theodosius was appointed military commander in Moesia at a time when he was a beardless youth. In repeated clashes he defeated the hordes of the Sarmatians and forced them to the world (Marcellinus: 29; 6). But soon the opal and the execution of Honorius, seemed to put an end to a brilliant career of his son. Theodosius had been deprived of all the posts and settled in as a private citizen on his estate in Spain (Gibbon: 26). However, the opal it was short-lived. In 378 g: Eastern Emperor Valens was defeated by the Goths under Andrianopolem and died. Hordes of barbarians scattered on Thrace, captured Dacia, reached the very walls of Constantinople (Jordan: 138). In this extreme western emperor Gratian arrived at Sirmium, summoned by Theodosius and January 19, 379 g. proclaimed him Augustus and Emperor over all the eastern provinces of the empire (Victor: 'On the life and morals of the Roman emperors', 48).
Theodosia took power in a very difficult time. According to the testimony of all writers, andrianopolskoe defeat threw the Romans into complete despair. One name is ready to lead soldiers in horror. It was useless to think of this army to give a new battle. The next four years were spent at Theodosius to return the Romans lost the fighting spirit. Its seat new emperor chose Thessalonica. Hence, he led the fighting and managed his half of Empire (Gibbon: 26). Military training soon brought its results, and the sluggishness and idleness were eradicated. Theodosia, generally distinguished by a sharp mind, prowess and common sense, and advocated a strict orders firmness and generosity and kindness. And indeed, after the soldiers have gained confidence in themselves, they become more confident and ready to attack gradually pushed them out of Thrace. But at the same Theodosius fell ill and his condition was almost hopeless. This again gave the Goths audacity. Some of them went to plunder Thessaly, Epirus and Achaea, others rushed to Pannonia. When the emperor Gratian to learn that in connection with a fatal illness and desperate Theodosius Goths intensified their onslaught, it appeared to the east, gave them many gifts, gave food and concluded a peace with them (Jordan: 139-141).
. Meanwhile, Theodosius, broken serious illness, took in 380 g
. baptized by an Orthodox bishop Asholiya. His illness began to back away, and he completely recovered. Arriving then at Constantinople, Theodosius showed himself an ardent defender of Orthodoxy. Arian bishop Demofilu he offered to take or belief in one nature of Christ with God the Father, or retire from the capital. Demofil elected last. Following him, many had left Constantinople, the Arians, who held more than forty years here all the churches. In 381 g. Gathered in Constantinople, Theodosius II Ecumenical Council, . which Arianism and other heresies were strongly condemned, . and adopted by the Council of Nicea Creed has been clarified in such a way, . to avoid any erroneous interpretation of his (Socrates: 5, 6-8),
. Emperor of his authority approved this decision and issued a series of laws to be the only correct faith of their fathers Nicaea. All the churches were now transferred to the Orthodox clergy (Sozomen: 7, 9). Similarly, Feodosia, the first of the emperors, subjected to persecution of pagans and issued a law commanding close and destroy the entire empire pagan temples (Theodoret: 5, 21).
Meanwhile, gradually subsided war with the barbarians. In October, 382 g. Theodosius concluded with the leader of the Free-tigernom contract in which the Goths received for the settlement of land in Lower Moesia and Thrace, and entered the service to the emperor as federates (Jordan: 145). Since that time, Theodosia rules calmly and firmly, until his death. Aurelius Victor says that he was gentle and benevolent to all, and especially to good people. He gave elegant and cheerful feasts, but without the pomp, his speech was solid and enjoyable. He was an affectionate father and an exemplary husband. Sciences at its formation was mediocre, but it is by nature different insight. Eating and drinking, he was dead (Victor: 'The life and morals of the Roman emperors', 48), as well as different chastity and abstinence. But he was soon angry and irritable (Gibbon: 27). In addition, they write that he was intemperate in spending and loyal immoderate luxury (Philostorgy: II; 1), careless and even inclined to laziness (Eunapius: 50).
However, from the measured and pleasant life Theodosius distracted strife in the western part of the empire. In 387 g. he stood up for Valentinian II, his brother Gratian, expelled from Italy tyrant Magno Maxim. The rivals met in Pannonia on the bank of the Sava. The first day of the battle did not bring victory to anyone, but the next morning Feodosia due to its superiority in cavalry (it is entirely composed of barbarians - ready and Alan) won. Maxim was captured and executed (Gibbon: 27). Next three years Theodosius spent in Italy, driving away the whole empire. Among the many useful acts performed by them in this time, historians have written, and one certainly disgraceful, which left a dark stain on the memory of this monarch. In 390 g. happened insurrection in Thessaloniki. Theodosia, without investigating the case, ordered the inhabitants subjected to indiscriminate beatings. Total killed about fifteen thousand citizens, without distinction of sex and age. The atrocities Theodosius angered the bishop of Milan. Ambrose, who, for all people not to allow the emperor to the temple because his hands were stained with the blood of innocents. To appease the prelate, Feodosia in clothes repentant sinner publicly confessing their sins. He was the first of the emperors, defiantly stood humbled before the authority of ecclesiastical authority (Sozomen: 7, 25).
In the same year, Theodosius returned to Constantinople, leaving Valentinian uprarlyat western part of the empire. Two years later Valentinian was assassinated, and seized power conductor Eugene. 394 g. Theodosius made against him at the head of his army. The battle took place not far from Aquileia on the shore Frigidy. On the first day warriors Eugene pushed detachments vararov, which were a great many in the army Theodosius (Socrates: 5, 25). Only the night saved Theodosius from total defeat. But the next day he was able to promise gain over a large detachment of the enemy. In addition, in the midst of the battle a severe storm. The wind was blowing straight in the face to soldiers Eugene. They did not survive the double onslaught and fled. Eugene was captured and beheaded (Gibbon: 27)
For a short time and the last time the whole empire united under one sovereign. However, after just four months on the road Theodosius of Rome in Mediolane fell ill and died, bequeathing power to his two sons (Theophanes: 386).