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Valentinian I

( Roman Emperor)

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Biography Valentinian I
Valentinian I, Flavius - Roman emperor in 364-375 years. Genus. 321 g. + 17 November 375

His father Valentinian, Gratian, came from the middle class and was born in Pannonia near Kiba. He had the nickname 'Rope', because, when he carried once a hunting net woven of rope, five soldiers could not take it from him. For such a force was adopted for military service and rose to the post of prefect of Pretoria (Victor: 'On the life and morals of the Roman emperors', 45).

Valentinian was proclaimed Augustus, quite unexpectedly and without any searching on his part. After the death of Emperor Ioviana army moved to Nicaea, and the highest civilian rank with military commanders began to look at the realm of human affairs, and tested in a decent. Once rejected several candidates proposed Valentinian, who commanded the second time scholium Scutari. He remained in Ankire and, according to the order, was to speak behind the rest of the army. And since this proposal was no objection and was approved by all, it was filled with an embassy to the new emperor with a request to quickly come to Nicaea.

. Valentinian arrived on this appeal within ten days after the death of Ioviana at the very end of February, 364 g
. On the day of the adoption authority under the threat of the death penalty were forbidden to appear in public, all people of higher status, and so on which there was a suspicion that they have a high intentions. All the troops were gathered in one place, Valentinian went to the parade ground, stepped on to the high tribunal, and by universal and unanimous sympathy of all present was declared the ruler of the state as a person worthy of its enviable quality. Immediately his clothed in imperial robes, and put the crown upon him, and he was proclaimed Augustus with a loud cry of approval. He was preparing to say premeditated speech, and had freed her hand to speak freely, but there was a terrible noise: screaming centurion and manipulation, and all soldiers in all cohorts insisted that was immediately. proclaimed emperor and other. In the terrible cries of all the troops could see the terrible excitement, and had to be afraid of bold promiscuity soldiers. Valentinian more than others had feared, but in a happy moment he raised his right hand for the speech with the power of the sovereign, . full of confidence, . and, . boldly interrupting someone for the rebellious spirit and tenacity, . delivered his premeditated speech, . and no longer interrupt him,
. He promised to appoint a co-ruler, but declined to identify him immediately. After graduating from the speech, which reinforced the impression of a sudden imperious tone, the Emperor was universal sympathy for himself. Shadowing with eagles and flags, surrounded by troops with honor all parts and has become a formidable. Valentinian was allotted to the palace.

The next day the army moved on. Arriving in late March to Constantinople, the first thing Valentinian chose his co-ruler. I thought about the different circumstances and mindful that the public affairs of great importance, and indeed urgent, exceed his powers, he decided to not further delay it. And on March 28 he brought his younger brother Valens in the suburb Gebdom with universal approval, and proclaimed him Augustus. Dressing him in imperial dress and tied with a diadem on his head, he brought him to the palace in a chariot with him as the legitimate co-ruler, but in reality, all reports to him. At this time all over the Roman world, as if to combat the signal pipes, rose the most ferocious peoples and began to cross the border next to them. Gaul and Retsiyu simultaneously robbed Alemц¦n, Sarmatians and quads - both of Pannonia, Picts, Saxons, and Scott plagued by continuous disasters Britain; Moors stronger than usual troubled Africa; Thrace robbing bandit gang ready. Persian king imposed his hand on the Armenians and made every effort to ensure that once again subjugate the country of his power.

In this extreme emperors went through Thrace in Ness. There they divided among themselves the generals and legions. Capital for Valentinian was appointed Mediolan, but for Valens - Constantinople (Marcellinus: 26 1-2, 4-5). According to Aurelius Victor, Valentinian was pleasant person, mentally alert, majestic and refined speech. He was restrained in words, . stern and impressive, . painted pictures, . had a good memory, . inventing new types of weapons, . able to sculpt in clay or wax all images, . wisely used the time, . place, . his speech (Victor: "The life of the manners of the Roman emperors'; 45),
. With respect to the provincials, he showed great care and ease the burden of taxes everywhere, timely establishment of fortifications on the borders of the State and had a very strict military discipline. At home and outside it he showed strict chastity, not the least being infected with plague of immorality and debauchery. Therefore, he could hold court turpitude within the strict limits, and so it was easier to it that he did not condone his relatives. In war, both offensive and defensive, he showed great skill and care. The glory of his reign, is the restraint with which he treated the religious disputes, he is not bothered anyone, did not publish the decrees read one or the other and not make the strict prohibitions of his subjects bow down before, he believed himself. These questions, he left in a position in which they found. If these advantages do not obscure the shortcomings of it could get a good ruler (Marcellinus: 30; 9). But the main defect of Valentinian was his cruelty. Although at the beginning of his reign, . Wishing to weaken the view of its severity, . Sometimes he would keep his wild outbursts, . trying to subordinate the passions to reason, . This lack of it sometimes broke through at the death of many, . and temper of his character compromise the case (Marcellinus: 27; 6-7),
. Never happened, that he was satisfied with a mild recovery, and this tended to cause suffering, because no one was saved from death sentence signing soft. Over the years, he generally stopped hiding their ferocity. Likewise, more and more growing out of the sovereign self-interest, which goes beyond all bounds. He hated the people are well dressed, highly educated, wealthy, aristocratic and belittle the brave, that it seemed that he alone rises above the other good qualities (Marcellinus: 30; 8). In 367, after a severe illness that almost ended with his death, Augustus Valentinian proclaimed his son Gratian. After that he went to campaign against the Alamanni, crossed the Rhine and near the Salt-tsiny gave them a battle. The Germans did not survive the onslaught of friendly Romans and fled with heavy losses (Marcellinus: 27, 10). All over the Rhine from the beginning of Greece and to the ocean, it has strengthened the Strait of Large Dams. Have been restored and renovated the fortress, and the whole space of Gaul built watchtowers (Marcellinus: 28; 2). In 374 g. He made peace with the Alemannic king Makrianom, and in the spring of next year out against the Sarmatians. Crossing the Danube, he had been devastated land quads, interrupting, without distinction of sex and age of those who did not manage to escape. Autumn he led troops in Sabara, and here came to him ambassadors from quad peace proposals. During an audience with them Valentinian terribly flared up and got excited and suddenly lost his breath and his voice and terribly flushed face, from his throat suddenly gushed blood. He was carried to bed, and on the same day he died (Marcellinus: 30, 3, 5). Emperor after his death, along with Graziani, legions proclaimed little Valentinian, son of his second wife, Justina. Socrates says that this was the first girlfriend of Justin Empress Severi. Often, they both bathed in a bath, and the North told her husband about the amazing beauty of Justina. With fire desire, Valentinian, finally married her, but do not let go of ourselves and the North. Thus, for some time he officially had two wives (Socrates: 4, 31).

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