Galba( Roman Emperor)
Comments for Galba
Galba, Servius Sulpicius - Roman emperor from 68-69 years. Genus. December 24. 3 g. to R.H. + 15 January. 69 пЁ.
Galba came from an illustrious and wealthy patrician kind Sulpicius. As a child he was adopted by his stepmother, Libya and lived almost all his life, Lucius prozyvayas Livy. When Tiberius, he was elected to honorary positions: appointed praetor in 31 g. received the Viceroyalty of Aquitaine, and in 33 g. - Consulate. Gaius Caligula sent his legate in Upper Germany. Having led the legion, he showed himself a stern and exacting commander (Suetonius: 'Galba', 4, 6). Above the Hutt, to break into the 41 g. almost to the Gaul, he won a decisive victory (Dion: 60; 8). Princeps, who visited his camp, Galba pleased good schooling troops, and even more so that after the exercise ran for his chariot as much as 20 miles. When the news of the assassination of Caligula, Galba many people advised to take this opportunity and seize power, but he preferred to stay away. In this way he gained a great location of Claudius, was admitted to the circle of his friends and has reached such honor, that because of his sudden and serious illness has been delayed even a trip to Britain. In 45 g. he received no proconsulate lots for two years in Africa, to restore order in the province troubled by internal strife and because of the uprisings of the barbarians, and he brought order to the assiduous rigor and fairness even in a minor. For his services in Africa and Germany, he received the triumphal ornaments, and was elected a priest in the three panel immediately. And from then on almost until the middle of the reign of Nero he lived mostly in peace, and even went for a walk no other way than having a million gold in a nearby cart. Finally, in 61 g. He was assigned to Tarrakonskuyu Spain. The province he governed for eight years, but intermittently and in different ways. At first he was tough and cool and did not even know the steps to punish offenses. This one money-changer for fraud in the exchange of money, he commanded to cut off the hands and nails to nail them to the table; guardian, . who wasted poison orphan, . to get after it inherited, . He ordered crucified, . and when he began to appeal to the laws, . assuring, . that he - a Roman citizen, . Galba, . like making it easier to punish him, . ordered to move it to another cross, . above others and bleached,
. But gradually he fell into inactivity and idleness (Suetonius: 'Galba'; 6-9).
So matters stood when 68 g. led the revolt against Nero, praetor Gaul Junius Vindex. It is reported that even before the open statement to Galba received a letter from Vindex, and he made no reply, however, and did not report to Rome. But after the Vindex started an open war, he again wrote to Galba, urging him to accept the supreme authorities and to give more power uprising - to lead the Gaul, which already has 100 000 armed soldiers, and may exhibit more. Galba called friends on the Board. Some of them felt that we should wait until you find out what Rome will respond to this revolution. But Titus Viny, head pretorskoy cohort, without thinking twice, he exclaimed: 'What is here meeting, Galba! After pondering whether to keep us faithful to Nero, we have it is not true! And if we now the enemy of Caesar, can not lose the friendship Vindex. Or otherwise, should immediately speak out against him with accusations and military power, because he wants to rid the Romans from the tyranny of Nero, and give them the rulers of you '.
. Then Galba special decree appointed a day, which promised to release a significant part of the prisoners, rumors and rumors spread about this in advance and collected a huge crowd of people, eager for revolution
. No sooner had Galba appear on the dais, as in one voice proclaimed him emperor. Galba at that time the imperial title did not take, saying the charges against Nero, and mourned the most powerful and famous among his victims, . He agreed to serve the fatherland, . naming, . however, . not Caesar and the Emperor, . as commander of the Roman senate and people,
. Many governors fell away from Nero, and almost all take the side of Galba, but Verginia, the chief Germanic legions in Gaul, he announced that he himself did not accept the supreme rule and will not get it to anyone other than the will and the choice of the Senate. He spoke against Vindex, and defeated him in the stubborn battle. Lost 20 000 people, Vindex committed suicide.
Worried by this, Galba returned to Spain and began to wait, what it's all over. In June came the news that Nero committed suicide, but the Senate proclaimed emperor Galba (Plutarch: 'Galba'; 4-7). Then Galba folded rank legate, took the name Caesar and made the road, dressed in a military cloak and dagger hanging on his chest (Suetonius: 'Galba'; II). In Gaul he was joined Verginia, who, according to his promise, getting the senate resolution, immediately recognized the Emperor Galba, and swore allegiance to him their legions.
. Thus, all initially favored Galba
. In Rome, he waited impatiently. When the prefect of the Praetorian Nimfidy Sabin tried to proclaim himself emperor, he was immediately killed. Had Galba at this point mercy, he may have been able to consolidate his power, but he was instead ordered to kill without trial friends Sabina. The lawlessness alerted all. Rumors about his harshness, cruelty and avarice, his actions confirmed Gal'ba and multiplied these rumors. One of his first orders was to locate and recover all valuable things, Nero donated their pets. Because these things have already changed owners several times, to pay for the reckless spending of the former princes had people completely outside and in no way guilty. Tracing was not the end, and they took a wider range of people, so that on Galba everywhere began to speak with contempt.
. Moreover, it soon appeared that he blindly trusted his advisers, friends and freedmen - and does everything on their orders
. And those all as on selection, people were greedy and cruel (Plutarch: 'Galba', 10, 14 - 16). Galba allowed them for a bribe or the whim to do anything - to tax and exempt from tax, punish the innocent and pardon perpetrators (Suetonius: 'Galba'; 15). So Viny for a huge bribe to save lives Tigellinus, one of the most hated minions Nero (Plutarch: 'Galba', 17).
Even the appearance and habits of Galba harmed him in the eyes of the mob and soldiers. He was not tall and completely bald, his nose was hooked, and his hands and feet - before crippled with gout that he could not wear long boots, read or just keep the book. On the right side he had caruncle, so flaccid that it could hardly keep back bandage. In his youth, Galba was married, but after the early death of his wife never tried to tie the knot, although many women (and one of them even Agrippina, Nero's mother) sought his favor. The lust he felt more for men, moreover, to adults and strong. For many years it nalozhnikom and cohabitant was freedman Ikela, which after coming to power, he showered immense honor and wealth.
Only a few months of Galba, but he has already sowed the seeds of discontent in all classes. But the most dangerous was his hatred of the soldiers and Praetorian. Many of them took part in the revolt against Nero, seduced by lavish promises of his superiors. But for their betrayal Galba they did not pay. When there was no hands, no gifts. When the princes said that the soldiers were dissatisfied and embittered his avarice, he replied that he used to recruit, and not to buy Warriors. This he has restored himself against the legions in all provinces. However, the loudest murmur troops in Upper Germany (Suetonius: 'Galba', 16, 21-22). In the January Kalends of 69 g. openly rebelled and proclaimed emperor of the Prefect of Lower Germany Vitellius. When Galba heard about the coup, he declared associates that can no longer delay the appointment of a successor. This idea has long been discussed in close range to him, because only thus hoped to strengthen the position of Princeps. Galba knew that few of his friends are in favor of Dolabella, and the rest of Mark's Fire. But he did not approve of neither the one nor the other. Friends, he said, that puts the common good above their own interests and wants to call her son is not the one who will be all the more pleasant to himself, but the one who will most benefit to Rome. It is believed that Otho, who in the seizure of power rendered him great services, he rejected due to the fact that he was a famous libertine and spendthrift, who had debts of fifty million. So, not listening to any one's advice, Galba had sent for Piso, a young man, by nature endowed with all the moral virtues, but is especially famous for the purity and austerity of life, and adopted him. Then he went to the Praetorian camp and announced Piso as his successor. For all the news struck Otho. Seeing the collapse of all his hopes, he is an adherent of hot Galba turned in his worst enemy. However, consider his position, he decided that acting quickly and decisively, he can now achieve their goal. On the same day he entered into negotiations with the Praetorians, and in four days time to prepare a plot against Galba.
On the scheduled speakers for the day Galba brought on the Palatine in the presence of the victim's friends. On hearing that the victim is very unfavorable for the princes, Otho came out of the temple. Pretorians took him to the camp, and here he was proclaimed emperor. Immediately reported the incident to the Palatine Galba. For some time he hesitated, not knowing what to do. From the city came to the most contradictory rumors. Some said that the insurgency is growing and that all the capital troops supported Otho, others reported that, on the contrary, the troops remained faithful Galba. Then he suddenly said that Otho killed in the camp Praetorian. One of the bodyguards Princeps even showed him the bloody sword, which he allegedly stabbed Otho (Plutarch: 'Galba', 21-25). All this was a lie. In fact, the legion of marines promptly joined pretorians, just as Illyrian legion. Only the Germans troops were ready to take the side of Galba, but they did not have time to do anything (Tacitus: 'History', 1, 31). But Galba favorable to him believed the news, he sat down on a stretcher, and through countless crowds of people went to the forum. Only then became known for certain that the princes lost cause and that the garrison entirely on the side of the new emperor (Plutarch: 'Galba'; 26). At this time the rebel cavalry stormed the forum. People ran helter-skelter, and pretorians rushed to a stretcher Princeps. Porters dropped the their hands, and Galba tumbled to the ground. They say that is surrounded on all sides by enemies, he framed his throat with the words: 'Kill me, if it is necessary for the state'. In it struck many blows - it is not known who inflicted a mortal wound. Even after he was dead, the soldiers continued to hack and chop mutilated body (Tacitus: 'History', 41). A soldier cut off a corpse's head and, holding his jaw with your fingers (after all the hair on the head of Galba was not), presented its Otho. Otho gave her cart drivers and Kharchevnikov, and they amused for a long time wore it at the peak of the camp (Suetonius: 'Galba', 20).