Nero( Roman Emperor)
Comments for Nero
Nero, Tiberius Claudius - Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian kind, who ruled in 54-68 years. Genus. December 15. 37 g. + 7 пTя¦п+я¦ 68 пЁ.
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Nero, Lucius, or, as he was called in childhood, belonged to an ancient patrician family Domitius Ahenobarbus. His father, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, was a stubborn and vicious. When Tiberius, he was accused in the treason, depravity and incest with his sister Lepidus, but a change of rulers was saved. He died in 39 g. of dropsy. His mother, Agrippina, treacherous and cruel woman, known was the fact that the FTA was in cohabitation with his brother Guy Caligula, but later was exiled for his debauchery. They say that Ahenobarbus, in response to the congratulations of friends on the occasion of the birth of her son, replied that from him and Agrippina nothing can be born, but horror and sorrow to mankind. His words proved prophetic.
Three months Lucius lost his father, his mother was soon banished, and their property Caligula put his hand so that his first years were spent in poverty and destitution in my aunt's house Lepidus. But when Claudius took power, he not only returned to his father's estate was, but added the inheritance of his stepfather, Crispus Crispus. Through the influence and power of the mother, returned from exile and restoration of rights, he has reached a prominent and high position. In 49 g. Agrippina was the wife of Claudius, in 50 g. he fathered Lucia under the name of Tiberius Claudius Nero, even though he was, and his son, Britannica, only slightly younger stepson. Nero's tutor has been appointed well-known philosopher Annaeus Seneca. In 53 g. Nero married the daughter Claudia Octavia, and a year later, after the death of Claudius (poisoned by Agrippina), it was announced in the testament of his successor.
He was sixteen years old when he took power. He began by saying that tried to show their family feeling. Claudius, he paid tribute to a magnificent funeral, laudable speech and deification. In memory of his father, Domitius, he paid homage to the greatest. Mother, he confided all his public and private affairs. He announced that he would rule on the fashion of August, and did not miss a single opportunity to show their generosity, kindness and gentleness. Burdensome taxes he canceled or dead. The people he gave four hundred sesterces a man, impoverished senators appointed an annual allowance. He allowed people to look at his military exercises, often recited at all and even pronounced the poetry both at home and in the theater, which invariably led to a general rejoicing (Suetonius: 'Nero', 5-10).
. However, like his uncle Caligula, Nero, quickly showed its true face
. Having fallen in love 55 g. freed women named in the Act and electing their cronies brilliant young people make Otho and Claudius Senecio, Nero began to gradually withdraw from the guardianship of the mother. Since it was known that his wife Octavia Nero always felt invincible disgust, no one was surprised by this relationship Princeps with brilliant hetaera. But Agrippina, just before she heard rumors about the Act, pounced on Nero with all the fury of women. And the more fiercely she smothered him with reproaches, not wanting to wait, when it come to its senses or satiated, the more incensed at his passion, and finally he came out of obedience to the mother and entrusted the direction of Seneca (Tacitus: "Annals", 13, 12 - 13). Thus, Agrippina forever lost son of the location, although the more prudent behavior could be a long time to lead them. In its fervor not seen so many angry mothers, many of jealousy in love, women, abandoned by her lover. Rumors circulated, . that Agrippina, . trying to strengthen his hold over her son, . led him to carnal connection with him and, . traveling in a stretcher with his mother, . Nero indulged in unnatural lust, . as evidenced by the stains on clothes (Suetonius: 'Nero', 28).,
. Beside himself with fury, Agrippina had once said that the Britannic, her stepson, have grown up, that he whole-blood son of Claudius and worthy to inherit his father's power
. She threatened to go along with the Britannica in the praetorian camp and to ensure that the power passed into the hands of a more worthy. Alarmed by these words, Nero began to think about the indomitable nature of the brother and that he has many supporters. In the end, he decided to remove him by poison (Tacitus: "Annals", 13, 14-15). The poison he had received from the same Lukusty, which was accused of poisoning Claudius. But the first attempt ended in failure: the poison was weaker than they thought, and only proslabilo Britannica. Then Nero called Lukustu to him and began beating her own hands, shouting that she scoffs at him and gave him no poison, and medicine. That was justified, she made the dose lower Wishing to avert the suspicion of murder. Nero made her immediately, in the bedroom at home, cook a new poison and bring to poison diners at the table Britannica. From the first mouthful, and he fell dead; Nero, lied commensal, though it is an ordinary attack of epilepsy, the next day, in heavy rain, buried him hastily and without honor.
This was the first crime of Nero. After this insolence, lust, licentiousness, avarice, cruelty, gradually and imperceptibly to appear in his manners. At first it seemed that these defects are not by nature, but age, and that they will be together with youth. As soon as it was getting dark, he wore false hair, or a felt hat and went wandering around the taverns, or wander the streets. Fun it was not harmless: people, . returning from dinner, . he kept hammering, . where resistance inflicted their wounds and dumped them in the gutters and in the taverns, he burst in and robbed, . and in the palace gave the market and, . captured prey sold in pieces, . and the proceeds on drink,
. Not once in the scuffle he could knock out the eye, or even kill: a senator who beat him nearly to death because he was pestering his wife. Since then he went out late at night except as accompanied by the military tribunes, imperceptibly disengaged (Suetonius: 'Nero', 26,33).
In 58 g. Nero carried away Poppaea, the wife of his friend Otho. According to Tacitus, it had everything but pure soul. Poppaea was a noble, beautiful and rich, but from early youth has set all these virtues at the service of his Lubos-Trust and his vanity. Barely acquainted with Nero, she pretended to be conquered by its beauty and unable to resist the surging at her passion. Princeps soon got into its network and became her lover. Under the influence of this woman's seed defects have been seen to germinate in his heart (Tacitus: "Annals", 13, 45-46).
That pushed Nero's Poppaea in 59 g. to murder the mother, as no hope in life Agrippina achieve his divorce with the octave and the marriage with her most. Determined to kill the mother, Nero began to confer with the approximate how it is implemented: through poison, weapons, or under any other. First stop on the venom (Tacitus: "Annals", 14, 1, 3). Three times as Nero, Agrippina tried to poison him, until I realized that she takes advance antidote. Then he threw over her bed piece ceiling to release his vehicle from the grooves to crack down on the sleeping, but the accomplices could not keep a secret plan (Suetonius: 'Nero', 34). Finally freedman Ani-kw proposed a cunning plan. He said that he could arrange to ship a special device that came out in the sea, that broke apart and sank any unsuspecting Agrippina. This cleverly devised plan was approved. Nero went to Bailly and invited his mother here for a holiday Quinquatria. There he broke the gentle treatment of her fears and suspicions, and finally hugged and gazed into her eyes. However, no sooner did the ship get enough distance from the shore, as on the sign collapsed Aggravated lead roof cabins. But Agrippina and accompanying Atseronniyu defended the high walls of the bed, bear the weight of the collapsed roof. The ship survived, so that both women were thrown into the sea a sudden jolt, and slipped into it. Atseronniya died, but Agrippina, first swim, and then to one of the colliding fishing boats reached his villa. She had not left the slightest doubt that its going to kill him, but she felt it necessary to conceal. Agrippina had sent his son to freedmen Agerina with the news of his salvation. Nero was not a little frightened by this turn of events. He announced that the mother should be put to death before she has time to accuse him of attempted. Sent it Agerina he ordered to detain, to give him the sword at his feet and declare, as if he had tried to kill Princeps. Aniket surrounded by the soldiers went to the villa of Agrippina. They say that Agrippina saw him, at first tried to pray for mercy, but seeing as the Centurions reveal swords, held up his belly and exclaimed: 'striking in the womb! " Her captors, causing her many wounds (Tacitus: "Annals", 14, 3-8). According to some accounts, . Nero came to inspect the naked corpse of a mother, . scrutinized and subjected to parsing all its members, . Some praised, . other rebuked and came from this activity so excited, . demanded that the wine and immediately, . near her body, . began to drink.,
. Get rid of guardianship, Nero has decided to implement its long-held dream
. Even in childhood, along with other sciences, he studied music and. After coming to power, he immediately invited me to his best at the time kifareda endure many days in a row listening to him after dinner until late at night. Now he himself gradually began to practice this art. He never missed any of the funds, which typically use a wizard to preserve and strengthen the voice: lying on his back with a lead sheet on the chest, stomach lavage and purified by vomiting, abstained from the fruits and other foods are harmful to vote. And though his voice was weak and hoarse, all the same, rejoicing in our successes, he wished to speak on the stage (Suetonius: 'Nero', 20, 34). For the first time publicly, he spoke at a specially organized them Juvenal before a carefully selected audience, which gave him a flattering and enthusiastic applause.
In 62 g. died prefect Praetorian Burr, one of the closest mentors Nero (there were rumors that Nero in the guise of medicine sent him poison), but after that followed by rapid cooling of the Princeps to Seneca. Seneca was accused that he was too rich, that being the author of many speeches of Nero, he assigns himself the glory of his eloquence, that he condemns the new hobby of Nero - racing, singing, and behind his mocking his voice. However, one of the last accusation was enough to Seneca from the first friend became a sworn enemy: the attacks on his voice Nero did not forgive anyone. The closest person under Nero has become the new prefect of the Praetorian Tigellinus. At the instigation of Nero without a court sentenced to death and executed two distinguished senators, Plautus and Sulla, as feared their popularity in the army. Senate retroactively approved the killing. After receiving the Senate resolution, and seeing that his crimes are accepted as the outstanding act, Nero banished Octavia, declaring that she is barren, and immediately married to Poppaea. But having achieved his, Poppaea no longer prosecute former rival: it has prompted one of Octavia's servants to accuse Mrs. adulterous connection with the slave. Begin an investigation, which indeed was carried out with many abuses, failed to prove this blatant slander. Nero is limited until that banished Octavia in the Campaign. Meanwhile, Aniket, assassin of Agrippina, hastened back to Nero, dirty and the service was everywhere spread rumors that Octavius was his mistress. Based on this, he himself started up rumor, Nero blamed the Octavia that she conceived coup, seduced by the prefect of the fleet and it was even pregnant by him (this have forgotten that recently accused her of infertility). The unfortunate imprisoned on the island Pandaterii, and a few days later announced that she must die. As she herself did not want to commit suicide, she was forcibly opened the veins in his arms and legs. Poppaea even this was not satisfied: in commemoration of his triumph, she told me to cut off the head of Octavia and bring it to Rome (Tacitus: "Annals", 14, 15, 51-52, 57, 60, 62).
. Meanwhile, Nero any day now penetrated more than a passionate desire to speak on the stage of public theater, still he was singing only for himself in the palace or in their gardens to Juvenal, . that treated with disdain, . Considering they are too confined for such a vote, . how he, . his opinion, . had,
. However, not daring to begin immediately to Rome, he chose Naples, posing him as a Greek city (Tacitus: "Annals", 15, 33). On the day of his speech in 64 g. Theater flinch from the unexpected earthquake, but Nero did not stop until I finished the song started. After that, he often spoke in Naples, and sang for a few days. Then he gave a short rest to restore the voice, but then could not bear solitude, out of the bath was in a theater, a banquet in the middle of orchestras and the Greek people, announced to the crowd that when he wet my throat, it has something to sing in full voice. He liked dimensional applause Alexandrians, . which in many arrived in Naples, . and he summoned from Alexandria more guests, not satisfied and they, . he took the young equestrian estates and more than five thousand stalwart fellows from the common, . divided them into teams and told to learn the applause of every kind - and 'Buzz', . and 'groove', . and 'bricks', . then echo him during the singing,
. The ringleaders of them earned on 400 000 sesterces.
Then Princeps returned to Rome and devoted himself to the most unbridled debauchery. And he and his entourage were given at this year's many feasts, which were forgotten all decency. Feasts Nero lasted from noon till midnight, from time to time it is refreshing in the pool, feasting and the people, on an artificial pond or in the Circus Maximus, where waited on bare and straight dancers from all over Rome. When he was sailing on the Tiber at Ostia or the Bay of Bailly, the banks arranged the inn, where everything was ready for carousing and debauchery, and where Shinkarka dressed matrons everywhere invite him to moor.
. Not only that he lived and with free boys, and married women: he raped even vestal Heading)
. Boy dispute he made a eunuch, and even tried to make a woman: he is dealing with it with all the wedding ceremonies, dowry and a torch with great pomp, brought him to his house and lived with him as a wife. And his own body he so often gave to the depravity that is hardly even one of its members remained unstained. In conclusion, he invented a new amusement: in an animal skin, he jumped out of the cell, . pounced on the linked to posts of naked men and women and, . saturate their lust, . echoed freedman doryphori; for this doryphori he came marriage, . as for him - Dispute, . while shouting and yelling, . both raped the girl.,
. Watching these, . Romans in the dreaded retribution from the gods, . indeed, . in the same year in the capital erupted in an unprecedented force since the Gallic invasion of fire, . destroyed most of the city and killing countless people,
. However, in this distress accused Princeps. It was said that he was sickened by the ugly old houses and narrow lanes of the curves, so he gave orders to set fire to Rome, moreover, so open that many konsulyary caught in his yard of his servants with torches and the tow, but dared not touch them. Six days and six nights raging plague, and people sought refuge in the stone monuments and tombs. In addition to the countless residential buildings, burned houses of ancient generals, still decorated with the enemy prey, burned the temples of the gods, erected and consecrated in the years of kings, burned all dostoynosi memorial that survived from ancient times. This fire Metsenatovoy Nero watched from the tower, enjoying, in his words, a great flame, and in theatrical garb sang 'The collapse of Troy' (Suetonius: 'Nero', 20, 27-29, 37-39). In order to meet the exiled fire and homeless people, . Nero opened for him Champ de Mars, . all houses Agrippina, . as well as their own gardens and, . besides, . ordered to immediately erect a structure, . to place them in the crowd disadvantaged Pogorel'tsev,
. From Ostia and the nearby municipalities have been delivered food, and the price for grain has been reduced to three sesterces (Tacitus: 'Annals', '15, 39).
A terrible calamity has allowed to realize a dream of Nero - rebuild Rome again. In buildings, as in everything else, he did not know the measures. From the Palatine to the Esquiline himself he ordered to build a palace, called his first Globe, and then, after the fire and recovery - Gold. About the size and decoration it is sufficient to say, . I come in it was so high, . that it was a colossal statue of Emperor growth in one hundred and twenty feet, . area it was so, . that the triple portico on either side was a mile long; within a pond, . similar sea, . surrounded by buildings, . similar cities, . and then - the field, . pestreyuschie pastures, . forests and vineyards, . on them - many domestic cattle and wild animals,
. In other chambers everything was covered in gold, . decorated with precious stones and pearls; in the dining chambers ceilings were pieces, . a tilt-table, . to strew flowers, . with holes, . to disperse the scents, the main chamber was a round, day and night without stopping rotated after firmament; the baths flowed salt water and sulfur,
. And when this palace was completed and consecrated, Nero only and told him the praise of that now, finally, he will live like a human. In this grand building on his orders began to build a bath of Mizenado Avernskogo Lake, . covered with porticos on the sides, . in which he wanted to withdraw all of Bai hot springs, and the channel was launched from Lake Avernus to Ostia itself, . to be able to go there on the courts, . but not by sea; long he was supposed to be a hundred and sixty miles, . and the breadth of such, . that could disperse two kvinkveremy,
. For the production of these works, he ordered all the exiles to carry everywhere in Italy, and even criminals ordered to sentence only to these works (Suetonius: 'Nero', 31).
All is not incorporated into the palace within the city limits. subsequently built up is not as crowded and disorderly, . as after the burning of Rome by the Gauls, . and with the exact blocks and wide streets between them, . with a limited height of buildings, . yards are not built up, . and in front of tenements erected hid their porticos,
. These porticos Nero promised to erect at its own expense, and areas for buildings provided the owners cleared. In addition, he identified them cash rewards for completing the construction of mansions and tenements in the set of his own time. For landfills, he gave the swamp near Ostia, . Commanding, . to court, . grain deliveries by the Tiber, . retreating, . immersing garbage most of the building, he ordered to erect without the use of logs, . entirely of gabiyskogo or Alban Tuff, . For this stone refractory; was forbidden to construct houses with common walls, . but every building ought to be tightly fenced off from the neighboring,
. All these measures taken for the common good, served together in order to beautify the city. To prevent the disgrace of his fame, that the fire was arranged on his orders, Nero priiskal the culprits and bring sophisticated executions of those who own abominations have brought upon themselves universal hatred, and whom the crowd called Christians. First, were captured by those who openly acknowledge themselves as belonging to this sect, and then, at their direction, and a great many other. Their killing was accompanied by bullying, because they are vested in the skins of wild beasts, that they were torn apart by dogs to death, crucified, or condemned to death in the fire burning after dark for night lighting.
. In 65 g
. was discovered by a big conspiracy headed by Gaius Piso. In the plot were drawn many senators, horsemen, soldiers and even women, both from the hatred of Nero, and from location to Piso (Tacitus: "Annals", 15, 43 - 44, 48). The conspirators entered into the shackles of the triple chains, some voluntarily confessed to the crime, while others even imputed to take credit for - they said that only death could help a man spotted all the vices. Children of prisoners were banished from Rome and killed by poison or starvation. After this, Nero is executed without measure and without discrimination for anyone and anything (Suetonius: 'Nero'; 36-37). In area, homes, villages and nearby municipalities scoured infantry and cavalry. This continuous flow of the crowd drove them chained and brought them to the entrance to the gardens. And when there were detained and interrogated, . he was charged in a crime that joy, . found once in the form of one or another of the conspirators, . a casual conversation, . a street meeting, . a joint presence at feasts or the representation,
. On that occasion, Nero sent an order to commit suicide all his enemies, who had never dared to touch and which were only slightly or even not been implicated in the conspiracy. So he forced to commit suicide Seneca and the consul Westin and still very many innocent people (Tacitus: "Annals", 15, 58, 63, 69).
After that had been celebrated the second five-game, set Nero. Here Nero made his first appearance in the theater before the Romans. First, he recited his poems (Tacitus: "Annals", 16, 4), but all shouted that they wanted to hear his divine voice. Princeps replied that he was willing to try to meet in their gardens, but when the requests of the crowd joined in the standing this time, the soldiers on guard, he readily stated that the act here and now. And then he ordered the Save this his name in the list kifaredov-contesters, threw his lot in the urn along with others, waited their turn and went. Getting up on stage and saying the opening words, he announced that he would sing 'Niobe', and sang it to the tenth hour. Continued competition and the issuance of awards he postponed until next year to have a chance to make a few more times, but it seemed a long wait, and he never stopped again and again to show the audience. He sang and tragedy, speaking masked heroes and heroines and even the gods and goddesses (Suetonius: 'Nero'; 21). Shortly thereafter, he killed his wife Poppaea, slapping her sore foot and pregnant, when he returned too late from the races, and she greeted him with reproaches (Suetonius: 'Nero', 35).
At 66 g. Nero ordered the execution of Antonia, daughter of Claudius, who after the death of Poppaea refused to marry him, accusing her of plotting a coup. His stepson, Rufriya Crispin, son of Poppaea, he ordered his servants to drown in the sea while fishing, because he had heard that the boy, playing, called himself a military leader and emperor. Then he married Statilii Messalina, whose husband, Atticus Westin, was executed shortly before.
At the same time all the Greek cities, where there have been musical contests, decided to send him a wreath kifaredov. He received the wreaths with great joy, and after arriving with them, admitted to himself before all, and even invited to a friendly lunch. During dinner, some of them begged him to sing loud applause and awarded. Then he said that only the Greeks know how to listen to him and only they are worthy of his efforts. Without delay, he's going to go to Greece and set off. Immediately on the move he made in Cassiopeia with singing before the altar of Jupiter, and then traveled one after another, all races. To do this, he ordered a one-year holidays combine a variety of terms, even though they had to repeat, and even in Olympia, contrary to custom, gave a musical play.
When he sang, no one was permitted to leave the theater, even on the need. Therefore, it is said, some women gave birth in the theater, and many, unable to listen more and to praise, moved through the walls, because the gates were locked, or pretended to be dead to be carried on a stretcher. Hard to believe how timid and he trembled, speaking as jealous of their rivals, as feared judges. Rivals, he courted, curry favor with them, cursed them on the sly, sometimes showered them with abuse when they met, like equals, and those who were skillful it even tried to bribe. By the judges before the performance, he approached with the greatest respect, assuring him that he did everything he needed, but whatever the outcome is a matter of chance, and they are wise men and scholars, these accidents should be disregarded. The judges asked him to take heart, and he retreated, relieved, but still in trouble: the silence and restraint nekotoryh.iz them seemed to him a manifestation of discontent and ill will, and he claimed that these judges are suspicious of him. In competition, he had carefully observed. all orders: do not dare cough, . wiping the sweat from his brow with his hands, . and when some tragedy, and dropped quickly picked up his rod, . it trembled in fear, . that for which he was expelled from the competition, . and calmed down only when, . When the second actor he vowed, . that no one noticed for the applause and cries of the people,
. Winner, he declared himself, so every time he participated in the contest heralds. And so from the previous winners nowhere left no trace, no memory, all their statues and pictures he ordered the overturn, pull hooks, and drop in the latrines. He played it many times and the driver, in Olympia, he rules even team at ten horses. However, here he was thrown from the chariot, he was again imprisoned there, but continue to jump, he could not and went from the arena, but despite this, got a wreath. Going way back in 67 g., he gave freedom to the entire province, and judges - Roman citizenship and a considerable cash: for this favor, he announced on the day of Isthmian games from mid-stadium.
From Greece, he returned to 68 g. in Naples, where he addressed once the first time, and rode into town on white horses through a breach in the wall, after the manner of the winners in the games. In the same way he came in the Shares, and Alban, and in Rome. In Rome he rode on the chariot, . which celebrated the triumph of August, . in a purple dress, . a cloak embroidered with gold stars, . with the Olympic wreath on his head and Pythian - in his right hand, ahead of the others were carrying wreaths with the inscriptions, . where, . over whom and in what tragedies or hymns he won, . behind, . in ovation, . went his flapper, . shouting, . that they are Augustus and the soldiers are in his triumph,
. He walked through the Great Circus, which blew the arch, through Velabrum, Forum, Palatine Hill and the Temple of Apollo, on his way to all people sacrifice, sprinkled road saffron, brought him tapes, songbirds and sweet dishes. Sacred wreaths he hung in his bedchamber next to the bed, and there also placed his statue in the garb kifareda. But after that he left his zeal and diligence: for the sake of votes, he even appealed to the soldiers always only in absentia by a herald, whether he works or resting, . when it has always been a teacher of pronunciation, . reminded him, . should protect the throat and breathe through a handkerchief,
. And many, he declared his friends or enemies, according to whether willingly or sparingly, they applauded him.
Meanwhile, his reign came to an end. After landing in Naples, he learned of the uprising of the Gallic legions, led by Vindex. He said to them calmly and nonchalantly: might even appear that he was glad the occasion to plunder the richest province on the Law of War. But when the uprising had joined the Spanish legions led by Gadboy, Nero fell to the ground and in the emotional exhaustion long lay as if dead, without saying a word, and when recovered, then tore his clothes, beating himself on the second -. fishing, shouting loudly that everything is over. Having calmed down a bit later, he dismissed the two consuls, and one took their place. But here, Nero remained true to itself - preparing for the Gallic campaign), he primarily took care to collect carts to transport the theater utensils, and concubines, who accompanied him, ordered to cut a man's arm, and with axes and shields, as the Amazons. Then he declared the military recruitment of urban tribes, but none fit the service did not come, then he demanded that the owners of a certain number of slaves and servants were selected from each of only the best. All the estates he was ordered to donate part of his fortune, and tenants of private houses and rooms - to immediately bring the annual rents in the imperial treasury. All these, he brought even more resentment to himself.
In the midst of his preparations came the news that the rest of the legions - and in the east and west - deferred and are willing to speak out against Rome. In horror, he began to prepare to escape and begged praetorian guards to follow him, but they refused. By evening, he wavered between the different plans: I wanted to surrender into the hands of Galba, then. to make a plea to the people, then go to Egypt. Further reflection, he put on the next day. But the night, waking up, he saw that the guards had left him. Leaping out of bed, he sent for friends and from no answer, he went to their chambers. All the doors were locked and nobody answered, he returned to the bedroom - there have already fled and the servants. Nero, as he was barefoot, in a tunic, donning a dark cloak, wrapped her head and covering his face with a handkerchief, mounted his horse, with him was only four satellites, among them - Dispute. Five of them made their way to the estate freedman Phaon between salt and Nomentanskoy roads. Cloak Princeps was torn on the thorns, and when he wanted to drink, he had to quench the thirst of a puddle. Phaon hid him in a miserable garret, where lay a thin mat, covered by old raincoat. When Nero was hungry, he was offered a coarse bread, and when he asked for advice, the latter still remained loyal friends who invited him to commit suicide to avoid shame and. He was ordered to withdraw from a yardstick and it dug into his eyes grave, collect pieces of marble, which exist for the gravestones, bring water for washing the corpse and firewood. For each order, he sobbed and kept repeating: 'What a great artist is perishing! " While he hesitated, came the news that the Senate declared him an enemy and is looking to put to death according to the custom of ancestors. Horrified, he seized two daggers, taken with him, tried to edge each, then put away again, justifying the fact that the fatal hour has not yet come. Only when told that a villa close to the riders, he thrust his sword into the throat. He was still breathing when the burst centurion, who, clutching a handkerchief to the wound, he pretended that he wanted to help him. Nero could only reply: 'Too late! Here it is, fidelity! " - And with these words, gave up the ghost. His eyes stopped and rolled, they were awful to watch (Suetonius: 'Nero', 22 - 25, 35, 40, 42-45, 47-49).