Tiberius I( Roman Emperor)
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Biography Tiberius I
Tiberius I, Claudius Nero - Roman Emperor Julian of the genus - Claudius, who ruled in 14-37 years Genus 16 п+п+я¦п¦я-я¦ 42 g. to R.H. + 16 п+п¦я-я-п¦ 37 g.
Tiberius, stepson of Augustus, belonged to an ancient patrician family Claudian. His father was in the Alexandrian war was quaestor Gaius Caesar and nachalstvuya over the fleet, much contributed to his victory. In peruzianskuyu war he fought on the side Lucie after the defeat of Antony and fled first to Pompey in Sicily, and then to Anthony - in Achaea. At the conclusion of peace in the world, he returned to Rome, and here at the request of August he lost his wife, Drusilla Libya, which had already given birth to a son of Liberia and was pregnant with second child. Soon after Claudius died. Infancy and Childhood Tiberius was heavy and disturbed, as he was accompanied by parents everywhere in their flight. Many times during this time his life was on the verge of death. But when his mother became the wife of Augustus, his situation changed dramatically. Military service, he started in 26 g. to R.H. in rremya Cantabrian campaign, where he was a combatant tribune, and civil-in 23 g. BC, . when he was in the presence of August in several trials, defended the king Archelaus, . Thrall residents and residents of Thessaly and brought to justice Fanniya Tsepiona, . which with Varro Muren was a conspiracy against August, . and secured his conviction for contempt of the Queen,
. In the same year he was elected quaestor.
In 20 g. to R.H. Tiberius led the march of the Roman troops in the east, returned to Tirana and the Armenian kingdom in his camp, in front of the podium commander, gave him a diadem. Preturu he received 16 g. to R.H. After about a year she drove Hairy Gaul, restless because of the strife of the leaders and the raids of the barbarians, and 15 g. to R.H. waged war in Illyria with vindelikami and retami. Consul Tiberius was the first time in 13 g. BC
The first time he had married Agrippina, daughter of Mark Agrippa. But although they zhiliv consent and it has already given birth to a son Drusus, and was pregnant a second time, he was manuf II g. to R.H. give her a divorce and immediately enter into a marriage with Julia, the daughter of August. To him it was immeasurable mental anguish: to Agrippina he had a deep affection. Julia is his temper was repugnant to him, he remembered that even the first husband she was looking for intimacy with him, and even talked about it everywhere. On Agrippina he missed, and after a divorce, and only once when he happened to meet her, he saw her with a look, long and full of tears that were taken that she never caught his eye. With Julia he initially lived in harmony and answered her love, but then became more and more of it suspended, and after no more a son, who was a pledge of their union, he even slept separately. Son was born in this Akvilд? and died a baby.
At 9 g. to R.H. Tiberius fought a war in Pannonia and subdued brevkov and Dolmatov. During this campaign he was awarded an ovation. The following year he was forced to fight in Germany. They write that he captured 40 000 Germans, put them in Gaul near the Rhine and entered Rome in triumph. At 6 g. to R.H. him for five years was awarded Tribunskii power.
But among these successes, in the prime of life and strength, he suddenly decided to retire and withdraw as much as possible. Perhaps it has pushed this relationship to his wife that he would neither blame nor deny, but could not stand it any longer, perhaps - the desire not to arouse hostility to him in Rome and its removal to increase its influence. Neither the mother's request, begged him to stay, no complaints stepfather in the Senate that he leaves him, did not shake him, met even more determined resistance, he was a four-day refused to eat.
. Having finally permission to leave, he immediately went to Ostia, Rome, leaving his wife and son, without saying a word to anyone from escorting and only a few kiss goodbye
. From Ostia he sailed along the coast Campaign. Here he was stopped at the news of illness in August, but since there were rumors that he expects will not be fulfilled if the boldest of his hopes, he launched into the sea almost to the very storm and finally reached the Rhodes. Beauty and the healthy air of the island attracted him even when he dropped anchor here in the way of Armenia.
Here he began to live as an ordinary citizen, contenting himself with a modest house and a little more spacious villa. No Lictor and without the messenger, he kept walking through the gymnasium and the local Greeks talked about as equal. He was a regular patron of schools and philosophical readings.
At 2 g. to R.H. he learned that Julia, his wife, was convicted of debauchery and adultery, and that in August on his behalf gave her a divorce. He was glad to this news, but still considered it his duty as he could stand up to his stepfather for his daughter in his repeated letters. Next year expired Tribunskii authority of Tiberius, and he thought that the return to Rome and visit his relatives. However, on behalf of August it was announced that he abandoned all care of those who so willingly left. Now he was forced to stay in Rhodes against his will. Tiberius retired to the interior of the island, abandoned the usual exercises with a horse and weapons, refused to paternal clothes, put on a Greek cloak and sandals, and as such spent almost two years, every year more and more despised and hated.
. August allowed him to return only in the 2 g
. the condition that he would not take any part in public affairs. Tiberius settled in the gardens of Maecenas, gave himself up to full rest and was engaged only in private affairs. Nowadays than three years, as Gaius and Lucius, grandsons of Augustus, which he intended to transfer power, died. Then, 4 g. August fathered Tiberius and his brother died, Mark Agrippa, but before Tiberius had to adopt his nephew Germanicus.
. Since then nothing nebylo lost for the elevation of Tiberius - especially after weaning, and links to Agrippa, when he deliberately left the sole heir
. Immediately after the adoption, he again received Tribunskii power for five years and assigned to the pacification of Germany. Three years of Tiberius subdued Cherusci and Chauci, strengthened border on the Elbe and fought against Maroboda. At 6 g. came the news of the apostasy of Illyria and the uprising in Pannonia and Dalmatia. He was entrusted with, and this war - the heaviest of external wars of the Romans after Punnicheskoy. With fifteen legions and an equal number of support troops Tiberius had to fight three years with the greatest difficulties of all kinds and the extreme shortage of food. Its not just withdraw, but he stubbornly continued the war, fearing that a strong and close to the enemy, meeting the voluntary assignment, goes in Napa denie. And for that perseverance was amply rewarded: all Illyricum, which extends from Italy and Norica to Thrace and Macedonia, and from the Danube to the Adriatic Sea, he conquered and brought into submission.
Circumstances have given even more important that victory. How 'just about this time in Germany, died Varus with three legions, and no one doubted that the conquering Germans would unite with pannontsami, if not before it was subjugated Illyricum. So Tiberius was appointed as a triumph, and many other honors.
In 10 g. Tiberius once again went to Germany. He knew that the blame for the defeat of Varus was recklessness and carelessness commander. Therefore, he showed unusual _ alert, preparing to cross the Rhine, and he stood at the crossing, checking every cart, whether it something beyond the situation and the need. And beyond the Rhine, he led a life that he ate, sitting on bare grass, and often slept without a tent. Order in the army, he maintained with the utmost severity, restoring the old ways of censure and punishment. For all this he engaged in battle often and willingly, and eventually succeeded. Back in the 12 g. in Rome, Tiberius celebrated its Pannonian triumph.
In 13 g. consuls made the law so that, together with Augustus Tiberius ruled the provinces and produced a census. He committed five years of sacrifice and went to Illyricum, but the road was immediately called back to a dying father. August, he found already without power, but still alive, and the day remained with him alone. ***
The death of August, he kept a secret until then, until he was put to death the young Agrippa. Killed him to wait on him to protect the army stands, having this written order. It is not known whether the order has left dying in August, or on its behalf dictated Libya with or without the knowledge of Tiberius. Tiberius himself when the Tribune reported to him that the order is executed, said that such an order he gave.
. Although he unhesitatingly decided immediately to take the supreme power and has surrounded himself with armed guards, . pledge and a sign of domination, . but the words he had long renounced power, . playing the most shameless comedy: he said reproachfully imploring friends, . that they do not know, . what a monster - power, . is ambiguous answers and flashy indecision kept the dark senate, . approached the him kneeling requests,
. Some even lost patience: someone in the general noise exclaimed: 'Let it rules or let him go'; someone's face told him that some have been slow to do what is promised, but he hesitates to promise what is already doing. Finally, as if against his will, with bitter complaints about the oppressive slavery imposed on them himself, he took power.
. The reason for his hesitation was the fear of threats to him from all sides: in the army mutiny broke out just two, in Illyricum and Germany
. Both forces presented many extraordinary claims, but Germans troops were unwilling even to acknowledge the ruler, they have not delivered, and make every effort to encourage government and as chief over them, Germanicus, despite its decisive rejection. That this danger was most afraid of Tiberius.
After the termination of the riots, finally got rid of fear, he at first acted as a good. From the set of the highest honors he received only a few modest. Even the name of Augustus, he has received by inheritance, he used only in letters to the kings and rulers. Consulate from then on he took only three times. Obsequiousness he was so disgusted that he never let his stretcher to any of the senators or for the welcome, nor for. Even when in conversation or in a lengthy speech he heard flattery, then immediately shut off the speaker, scolded him and immediately corrected. When someone asked him 'Emperor', he immediately announced that more so it is not abused. But the irreverence and blasphemy, and insulting poems about him, he endured patiently and bravely, proudly declaring that in a free country should be free and thought, and language.
. The senators and officials he has kept the old grandeur and power
. There was no such business, small or large, public or private, which he had not reported to the Senate. And the other things he always kept in the usual way through officers. Consuls enjoyed such respect that he Tiberius has always stood up to them and always give way.
But gradually he made to feel in himself the ruler. His natural sullenness and innate cruelty began to appear increasingly. Initially, he acted with an eye to the law and public opinion, but then, filled with contempt for the people, gave full power to his secret vices. In 15 g. began the process of so-called treason. This old law in August hardly used. When Tiberius asked whether to bring the guilty to justice under this law, he replied: "Laws must be enforced '- and they began to perform with extreme brutality. Someone removed the head with a statue of Augustus, to replace it with another, it went to the Senate and, because of questions raised, investigated under torture. Gradually it came to that, . that the death was considered a crime, . if someone in front of the statue in August hit a slave or undressed, . if you bring a coin or a ring with the image of Augustus the latrine or in a brothel, . if no praised some of his remarks, or to,
. No less severe was Tiberius to close. By both his sons - and their native friends, and his adopted Germanicus - he had never experienced fatherly love. Germanicus had inspired him with envy and fear, since enjoyed great love of the people. So he tried to humiliate his glorious deeds, declaring them useless, and the most brilliant victories condemned as detrimental to the state. In 19 g. Germanicus died suddenly in Syria, and even believe that Tiberius was responsible for his death, gave a secret order to poison the son, which was performed Piso governor of Syria. Not reassured at this, Tiberius moved to further their hatred for the whole family of Germanicus.
Own son Drusus was disgusted with his own vices, as he lived recklessly and looseness. When he died in 23 g. (as it turned out, poisoned by his own wife and her lover Sejanus, prefect of the praetorian guards), it did not cause any trouble in Tiberius: almost immediately after the funeral, he returned to business as usual, forbidding mourning. Envoys from the IL-Lyon brought him sympathy little later than other, . - He, . if the mountain had already been forgotten, . sarcastically replied, . that he in turn sympathizes with them: for they have lost the best of his fellow-citizen Hector (Suetonius: 'Tiberius' 4, . 6, . 7-22, . 24-28, . 30-31, . 38, . 52, . 58),
In 26 g. Tiberius decided to stay away from Rome. Reportedly, . that he was banished from the capital of Libya's ambition of his mother, . he did not want to recognize his co-ruler and from the claims which could not escape, . after all power had come to him through it: it is reliably known, . that Augustus was thinking pass Principate Germanicus, . and only after many requests from his wife surrendered to her entreaties and adopted by Tiberius,
. This also constantly reproached the son of Libya, demanding it thanks (Tacitus: "Annals", 4, 57). Since 'then Tiberius never returned to Rome.
Initially, he sought solitude in Campania, and 27 g. moved to Capri - the island has attracted its first and foremost by the fact that land on it can be in one of only a small place, but with the other sides he was surrounded by the highest cliffs and deep sea. True, people hung requests immediately made his return, as happened in the accident Fithen: the gladiatorial games hit the amphitheater, and more than twenty thousand people died. Tiberius moved to the mainland and all allowed to come to him. Satisfying all asylum, he returned to the island and finally abandoned all affairs of state. For it is not replenished dekurii riders did not appoint or prefects, nor the military tribunes, succeeds governors in the provinces of Spain and Syria for several years remained without consular legates, Armenia conquered the Parthians, Moesia - Dacians and Sarmatians. Ravaged Gaul, the Germans-but he did not pay any attention to the great shame and less damage to the state (Suetonius: 'Tiberius'; 39-41). Available Tiberius was twelve villas palaces, . each with its own name, and how much before it was absorbed by the cares of State, . so now surrendered secret adultery, and the low-lying idle (Tacitus: "Annals", 4, 67),
. He started a special bed-room, concealed nest of depravity. A crowd gathered from all over girls and boys vied copulated before him in three of this exciting spectacle of his fading lust. Bedrooms are located here and there, he decorated with paintings and statues of the most obscene properties and spread them in a book Elephantis that everyone in his writings had at hand the required sample. Even in the woods and groves he arranged around Venus towns, where in the caves and among rocks, young people of both sexes before all portrayed fauns and nymphs. He started as boys of the tenderest age, whom he called his little fish and that toyed in bed. For lust of this kind, he was inclined to and from nature, and from age. Therefore, to deny him by will now Parras depicting intercourse Meleager and Atlanta, he not only adopted, but also put in her bedroom. Say, . even at the sacrifice he once so incensed at the boy charm, . carrying a censer, . that I could not resist, . and after the ceremony almost immediately took him aside and corrupted, . but at the same time his brother, . flutist, but when they then began to reproach each other's shame, . he ordered them to kill my knees,
. He mocked and over women, even the most distinguished.
29 g. proved fatal to many close Tiberius. First of all, Libya has died, his mother, with whom he had for many years been at loggerheads. Tiberius began to move away from her immediately after taking power, and tore open after it, in a fit of anger at his ingratitude, read out some old letters of Augustus, where he complained of the cruelty and stubbornness of Tiberius. He was immensely hurt by the fact that these letters were kept so long and were turned against him so viciously. For all three years of his departure and before her death, he saw her only once. He then did not visit her when she fell ill, and forced himself to wait in vain, when she died, so that her body was buried only several days later, decomposing and rotting. The deification of it he forbade, and the will declared invalid, with all the same friends and family dealt very soon (Suetonius: 'Tiberius', 43-45, 51).
After that time has come to the boundless and ruthless tyranny. In life Libya still existed some sort of refuge for the persecuted, . Tiberius had long since become accustomed to obedience to the mother, . Yes, and Sejanus, . his evil genius, and headset, . did not dare to rise above his reputation of her that, but now they both raced, . if freed from the reins, . and the onslaught on the widow of Germanicus Agrippina and her son Nero (Tacitus: "Annals", 5, 3),
. Tiberius had never loved her, but reluctant to conceal his feelings, as people moved on her and her children the love that you always had to Germanicus. Sejanus was blowing strongly dislike this. He had sent to her alleged well-wishers, so that those under the mask of friendship warned her that she made the poison, and that it should avoid dishes offered to her by her father. And then, when Agrippina had to recline at a table near the princes, it is gloomy and silent, did not touch to any dish. That said Tiberius, by chance or, perhaps, wanting to test it, he praised the set in front of him fruits and handed them to his own daughter. This further strengthened the suspicions of Agrippina, and she, not having tasted the fruit, gave their slaves (Tacitus: "Annals", 4, 54). After this, Tiberius did not even invite her to the table, offended because he is accused of poisoning. Several years Agrippina lived in disgrace, abandoned by all friends. Finally, raising her slander that she wanted to flee either to the statue of Augustus, whether army, Tiberius banished her to the island Pandateriyu, but when she began to complain, she blows vyhlestnuli eyes. Agrippina decided to die of hunger, but she forced open the mouth and poured food. And even when it persists, has died, Tiberius continued to pursue her viciously: the day of her birth from now on he told considered unlucky. Two sons Agrippina - Nero and friends - declared enemies of the fatherland and killed by hunger.
However, and Sejanus was unable to enjoy the fruits of his perfidy. In 31, already suspecting him of scheming against him, Tiberius, under the pretext Consulate Sejanus removed from Capri (Suetonius: 'Tiberius', 53-54, 65). Then Antonia, the widow of his brother Drusus, Tiberius had reported that Sejanus plotting, preparing with the help of pretorians deprive him of power (Fl: 'Antiquities of the Jews', 18, 6, 6). Tiberius ordered to seize and punish the prefect. During the investigation opened many atrocities Sejanus, including the fact that his orders had been poisoned Drusus, son of Tiberius. After this, Tiberius was particularly fierce, and showed his true colors. Not a day passes without a penalty, whether it be a holiday or a reserve day. Together with many condemning children and children of their children. Relatives of those executed were forbidden to mourn. Prosecutors and often witnesses appointed any awards. Any denunciation not denied trust. Every offense is considered criminal, even a few innocent words. Dead bodies were thrown into the Tiber. Virgins ancient custom forbade killing noose - so minor girls before his execution corrupt executioner. Many were tortured and executed in Capri, and then dropped dead from a high rock into the sea. Tiberius even invented a new method of torture: people drink drunk pure wine, and then, unexpectedly tied the members, and they were languishing on the cutting and ligation of the detention of urine.
. Shortly before his death he went to Rome, but, seeing from afar the walls, ordered to turn back, and not to drive into city
. He hurried back to Capri, but fell ill in Asturias. Few recovered, he reached Mizena and then collapsed completely (Suetonius: 'Tiberius', 61-62, 72-73). When the surrounding decided that Tiberius breath cut short and were congratulating Guy Caesar, the last surviving son of Germanicus and his heir, he suddenly said that Tiberius opened his eyes, his voice returned to him and he asks you to bring him food. All this news has plunged in awe, but the prefect of the Praetorian Macron, not lost composure, ordered to strangle the old man, lashed out at his pile of clothes. So ended the reign of Tiberius at the seventy-eighth year of life (Tacitus: "Annals", 50).