CONSTANTINE V KOPRONIM( Byzantine Emperor)
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Biography CONSTANTINE V KOPRONIM
Konstantin V Kopronim - Byzantine emperor Isaurian dynasty, who ruled in 720-775 years. Son of Leo III Isaurian. Genus. July 718 g. + 14 Sept.. 775 g.
The life and deeds of Constantine Copronymus, the most severe of the iconoclastic emperors, were described orthodox historians exclusively in the dark and unattractive colors. Already at that time, . when the patriarch Herman baptized future heir to the throne, . happened, . According to Theophanes, . horrendously bad omen: he defecated in the most holy font, . and Herman prophetically predicted, . that Christianity and the Church will suffer through it a great misfortune,
. Having become an adult, Constantine, according to the same Theophanes, like a toy of music, feasting and dancing. He was not indifferent to handsome young men. However, even the enemies of the Emperor admitted that during his reign in the capital was a surprising abundance of cheap products (Theophanes: 711.759). After the death of his father Constantine was able to establish itself on the throne only after a hard fight with his son in law Artavasdom. This Artavasd, married to the sister of Constantine Anna bylstratigom opsikiyskogo troops. As soon as he learned in 742 g. the death of father-Lev Isaurian as soon took an oath to his troops: stand up for him and not recognize the Emperor anyone else. At this time the Roman army was in Phrygia, and was preparing to march on the Arabs. Constantine called Artavasda to his camp to a council of war. Artavasd went in the hope that it can easily capture his enemy, but Constantine was on the alert. He sent to meet his brother-Patrika Visira, and when he learned that he was killed, fled to the Anatolian region. The local population has taken its sympathetic and promised to keep until death. Frakisiyskoe army also took the side of Constantine. Meanwhile Artavasd mastered the capital. Master Theophanes proclaimed him emperor, and the Byzantines assured that Constantine died. Artavasd sent for his son, Nikiforov, who was then a strategist in Thrace, and instructed him to protect Constantinople. He himself had barely entered the town, restored the veneration of icons and began to prepare for an attack. In the spring of next year, preparing for a hike, he appointed a younger son of Nikita strategist troops Armeniakov and older, Nikiforov, crowned king. Constantine spent the winter in Amariah, gathering and pulling out of Asian FEM loyal troops. In May, 743 g. He met with the usurper at Sardis, joined with him in battle and completely turned it into flight. His troops he led in humility, and all their equipment has arrogated to itself. Artavasd fled to Cyzicus, and then shipped to Constantinople. Constantine did not pursue it, . and turned against Nikita, . stormed Modrinu, . fortified place, . in which he took refuge with his army, . many broke, . a very Nikita routed, . Only after that he crossed in the Thracian region and approached the walls of Constantinople ^ Because, . that stopped food deliveries, . in the capital began a severe famine,
. Many Byzantines were killed, others were forced to eject out through the wall. Those who could, fled, bribed with gifts of urban swifts. Constantine favorably received all fugitives, and surrounded of all forms of care. The situation of the besieged grew day by day getting worse. Nikita again tried to help his father: to gather a new army, he went up to the Asian shore of the Bosphorus and took Hrisopol. Constantine turned against him, defeated the second time, pursued to Nicomedia and captured (Nikephoros: 741 - 743). Finally, on November 2 in the twilight, and came to the gates of the capital with the land side, suddenly seized the city of Constantine (Theophanes: 735). Artavasd sons fled to Bithynia, in Puzanskuyu fortress, but was soon captured by. The emperor ordered a shame to drag them connected during the horse races, and then dazzle (Nikephoros: 743). To reduce the power Opsikiya (FEMA, this was in the immediate vicinity of the capital), Constantine isolated from it two independent of the theme: Vukellarii and Optimates.
In the following years, Constantine began a stubborn war with the Arabs. In 745 g. He took their northern Syria, in 746 g. defeated Arab navy off the coast of Crete. At the beginning of the 750-ies. hostilities have spilled over to Mesopotamia and South Armenia. Emperor conquered and destroyed the old Roman city Feodosiopol, . Malatya, . Samosata, . and their inhabitants carried away into the interior of the empire of vacant land (Dashkov: 'Constantine Kopronim'): So he resettled many Syrians and Armenians in Thrace, . built for them the city, . generously endowed and always came to the aid, . when she needed,
. Bulgarians saw the construction of these cities, demanding the payment of money from Constantine. So as a tribute was not paid, they are in 754 g. made war on Thrace and reached the long walls of Constantinople. Emperor, rushing into battle, a courageous blow put them to flight, persistently pursued and many interrupted. Then, having collected numerous forces, he led a bitter struggle with the Bulgarians on land and water. With 500 ships, Constantine entered the Danube, burned the Bulgarian lands and captured many prisoners. We fortress Markell, he had another battle once again drew the enemy to flight, and caused them great damage. Because of all these defeats Bulgarians weakened and sent ambassadors to negotiate peace. Nine years later, began a new big war. Bulgarians killed their rulers and put the leader of the Khan Taurus, her husband, according to Nicephorus, arrogant and shows youthful audacity. Gathering and giving able-bodied soldiers, he was 763 g. bravely attacked the nearest Roman towns and fortresses. Constantine, seeing his courage and fearlessness, and sent across the sea to the Danube fleet of 800 ships, filled with horse army. He himself led another army to the city Anhialu and under its walls, defeated Taurus and its army, many killed, others captured and ordered the execution of Constantinople. Frightened Bulgarians killed Taurus and began to ask the emperor of the world. Constantine stepped up to the Balkans and then to kind of peace with them (Nikephoros: 756, 764). However, when the enemies really encouraged by this, removed the protection from the mountain passes, he suddenly broke off the peace and invaded their country (Theophanes: 756). As a result of this invasion of the whole of Bulgaria was burned and looted by the Romans, so that many villages were completely exterminated. In the following years, devastating incursions occur repeatedly (Nikephoros: 765).
Also, severe and unbending was Constantine in matters of faith. Like his father, he fought all his life to the veneration of icons and relics, but also introduced in this religious discord so much zeal and obstinacy, which was named 'New Julian'. In 754 g. he gathered in Constantinople, the Church Council, which declared heretics all 'tree-and kostepoklonnikov' (Dashkov: 'Constantine Kopronim'). Devotees of icons, and most of all the monks, were then directly persecuted. Those, . who kept his vow, and opposed the iconoclastic teachings, . Constantine had delivered various kinds of torture and abuse: a ruthless scorched or plucked beard, . other heads crushed icons, . Some put out their eyes or chop off their hands and limbs,
. As if in a resurgent paganism second time to invent all sorts of atrocities to Christians, through which sought to discredit and destroy all the commitment to ban the teaching of. Many, performing. Government or military posts, was accused in the worship of icons and, as if caught in the sacrifice, killed and exiled in a number of overseas empire (Nikephoros: 765). Some monasteries Constantine gave a home to soldiers and others ordered to tear down to the ground. Monks is forced forced to marry (Theophanes: 759, 762). In 764 g. denounced by detractors Constantine ordered the execution of many noblemen, who were accused of plotting against him. At the same time filed a denunciation of the Patriarch. Constantine, with his shame reduced from the pulpit, put on a donkey, and many abuses were taken by city. Finally, the emperor ordered to chop off his head, and the corpse thrown into ditches Pelagievy (Tsikifor: 766).
Church policy of Constantine led to the permanent loss of Rome, especially after a 751 g. Lombards took Ravenna, and Pope Stephen II anointed king of the Frankish King Pepin the Short and placed under its protection. The emperor kept his authority only over the southern tip of the peninsula: in Puglia, and Sicily Kalavrii (Dashkov: 'Constantine Kopronim'). However, losses in faraway Italy, he compensated for acquisitions in Asia and the Balkans. In 775 g. Constantine made a regular trip to Bulgaria, but suddenly fell ill: on the leg he formed anthrax that caused severe pain, to which joined the cruel fever, and the emperor died on a ship near the fortress Strongile (Theophanes: 767).