Michael VIII Palaeologus( Nicene emperor)
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Biography Michael VIII Palaeologus
Michael VIII Palaeologus - Emperor of Nicaea in 1259-1261 he. Byzantine emperor from 1261-1282 he. Genus. app. 1224 g. + 11 December. 1282 g.
Michael came from a rich and noble kind of Palaeologus. His grandmother was the daughter of Emperor Alexis Angel, and marrying her, his grandfather received the title of despot Palaeologus, and his father, Andronicus Palaeologus, was the great Domestic in John III. Sam Michael was a man well-known and respected by all (Grigor: 3, 4). From his youth he dreamed of a throne, the possession of which is rumored to have been promised to him many prophecies. Because of various circumstances, this prediction has become known to many people, including the emperors of the ruling dynasty Laskaris. In 1252, Mr.. John III Palaeologus made a solemn oath before the patriarch that he is not contemplating any infidelity and will not seek the throne for his descendants (the Acropolis: 50). After that, Michael has continued to enjoy the graces of the court, but mistrust remains. In 1256, Mr.. He heard that Theodore II, who succeeded to the throne at the time of John, gave the order to seize him. Do not hesitate for a minute, Michael dropped everything and fled to the Turks. He found the Sultan of Iconium greatly preoccupied by the war with the Mongols. Since he had a lot romeyskih prisoners, the Sultan was one particular regiment, and gave him command of Michael (Grigor: 3, 2). In battle, the regiment succeeded (Acropolis: 65), but the overall outcome of the battle was still not successful for the Turks. Meanwhile, Theodore sent to Paleologue sympathetic letter, asserting that there was a misunderstanding, and invited him to return. Michael came back, was treated kindly by the emperor and received the rank of Grand konostavla. However, his second time was forced to bring a terrible oath that he will remain always faithful to the emperor that he would never leave the boundaries of obedience and will not solicit the supreme power (Grigor: 3, 2). Michael all dutifully promised, but after a little time it was seized, shackled and thrown into prison on charges of witchcraft. Soon Theodore made out his case, did not find any fault and returned him to his mercy. So Paleologue three escaped a terrible danger.
In 1258, Mr.. Theodore II died. After he left himself three daughters and a little of John IV, who was only the ninth year (Pahimer: 1, 10, 12-13). Regent for his son he did protovestariya George Muzalona and patriarch of Arseniy. Supreme power over the empire to the age of John he gave Muzalonu. But within three days after the funeral, during funeral services at the monastery Sosandrskom conspirators killed the regent and his two brothers (Acropolis: 75). After that, care about the emperor decided to send Paleologue as great konostavlyu. Not a small part in this profitable choice was and he himself, as is very well able to locate anyone in their favor (Pa-chimeras: 1, 22). According to Gregory, Michael offers a pleasant appearance, agile handling, a cheerful character, and all of this - the generosity. This aroused a great love for him, and he easily attracted an army, ordinary people and sinklitikov (Grigor: 3, 4). Charmed all, Michael has gradually took possession of supreme power. Soon the council members asked the emperor Welcome Paleologue title of Great Duksa with the right to take care of public affairs.
In his new position, he gained access to the imperial treasury and from that time could enhance the effectiveness of its charm. Many persons of noble origin, he inventing pretexts, royal reward money, but for himself defiantly did not take. When I arrived at the patriarch, he was fascinated with his / her suppleness, and bishops, his companions, to win gifts. In the end, everyone was so caught by his cunning plans and suppleness of his temper, that the reasoning of the government, filed opinion in his favor, despite the fact that he did not say anything. And the officials and the bishops agreed that the trustee of the State can not be equated with other dignitaries. It was decided that from now on be referred Palaeologus despot and the father of Emperor. He took both, and now he could have without a doubt, and boldly handing out gifts and attract the right people on your side. His brother, he made a great Domestic, on many important posts set up the their people, and those who were dangerous to him, on one pretext or removed from the capital. Finally, bribery and deceived all, he began harassing the imperial power (Pahimer: 1, 23,25-28).
Just at this time, very handy, has started a war with the despot of Epirus Michael and his allies. In the battle of Pelagonija brother Michael, the great Domestic John, smote the enemy hip and thigh and captured the Prince of Achaia (Grigor: 3, 5). To buy his freedom, he should have hands Romeo several important fortresses in the Peloponnese (Pahimer: 1, 31). And then, when things went this way, a few nobles, noble clan and personal merits, while in camp at Magnesia, they put Michael on the shield, and proclaimed emperor. Patriarch Arseny, who lived then at Nicaea, was struck by this news in the very heart. In fear for young John at first he wanted to expose as excommunication proclaimed emperor, . and proclaiming, . but he restrained himself and reasoned, . it is better to associate them with oaths: and he Palaiologos, . and his supporters had promised not to meditate on the life of a child and not to encroach on his royal rights,
. Only specifying such conditions, the patriarch was married in early 1259, Mr.. Michael's kingdom, but not forever, but only until age rightful heir, then Michael had to cede the throne to one John. In this sense, again, were brought terrible oaths (Grigor: 4; 1). Having become an emperor, has appointed Michael warriors constant food ration, which was issued to them even on children. In this way he brought in the soldiers ready to serve him with zeal. He is to serve the people that opened the prison, took off from debtors treasury arrears, and gave the poor ample means for living. All the forces trying to please the mob, he devastated the treasury with both hands and in a short time squandered it all. But her little co-ruler Michael since that time have become much less attention. He sent John to life in the children's amusements, and he was constantly before the people, caressed his promises and threw into the crowd of gold (Pahimer: 2, 5, 9).
. However, in order to finally secure the throne for themselves and their posterity, Michael had to make something that obscured their brilliance to act earlier sovereigns
. Latin Empire in previous years have been dealt a heavy blow, but Constantinople still remained in the hands of the Crusaders. At the capture of Palaeologus concentrating. In 1260, Mr.. He crossed over to Thrace, having in mind to try his luck in the military themselves outskirts of the capital. Furnished building kamnemetnymi machines and used a lot of effort, he still could not take the city. But the emperor strengthened the fortress, lying in front of Constantinople, and left them soldiers. He ordered them to make frequent raids and attacks against the Latins, not to. allow them to even look out the walls. This brought the Latins to such extremes that they used the lack of wood for fuel many beautiful buildings (Grigor: 4; 1). The following year, the emperor gave the Warriors a little Stratigopulu Alexis and sent it to the west, as well as the road was not far from Constantinople, at the same time requested to make an attack on this town and intimidate its citizens. But it so happened that all the army and navy Crusaders were at this time in the campaign against the inhabitants of the island Dafnusiya. In the city there were only women and children, but the Emperor Baldwin with a small detachment. Warriors Alexei easily captured the walls, opened the gates and let the rest. Thus, against all expectations, Constantinople was returned rum. The Emperor was then living in a meteorite and knew nothing about what happened. His sister, Irina, first brought him news of the extraordinary event - she ran into the bedroom of Michael and woke him with the words: 'Sire! You captured Constantinople! " (Acropolis: 85-86).
In August 1261, Mr.. Michael triumphantly entered the capital and occupied the palace situated near the racetrack, because Vlaherna palace was abandoned long ago and covered with soot and dust. The very capital is now complete destruction. First, a big worry for the emperor, it was clear the city of rubble and debris and return to it as possible to its original beauty - resume still not completely destroyed temples and fill the deprived inhabitants of the house (Grigor: 4, 2). In subsequent years Romeyskaya empire continued to grow: the Italians have been selected to mow the island, Paros, Kos and Kariest; in Achaean prince - Laconia with Sparta, the Bulgarians - Philipopol, Messemvria and Anhialo (Pahimer: 3, 15, 18). But absorbed in European affairs, the emperor left completely unattended Asian border. Sensing this, the Turks will soon resume their devastating raids. Shortly before his death, Michael, visited the eastern limits of the state and was shocked desolation and ruin of many cities that were in the years of his youth in the most flourishing condition (Grigor: 5, 4).
. Meanwhile, after the capture of the capital idea of the emperor completely stopped on the autocracy
. Little John even formally been removed from the management. His defeat marks the royal power (Pahimer: 2, 23), and when Michael was crowned the second time in the church of St. Sophia, John was not even mentioned (Pahimer: 3, 6). Finally Palaeologus told blinded him and conclude in the fortress. All of his sisters he was married to obscure people, and thus secured himself from all sides, and strengthened to a succession of supreme power. Although the part of Palaeologus was a clear breach of faith, no one spoke in support of small Laskaris, except the patriarch. According to Gregory, Arseny, hearing of the blinding of John, jumped from their seats and rushing from room to room, plaintively wailed, and mercilessly beat his breast and called on all the punishment on the head of a perjurer. When he saw that there was no means for revenge, he was subjected to Michael Church excommunication. The Emperor at first long and lying down punishment, has taken the form of submission and waiting for permission penance. But as his hopes were not fulfilled, he decided to avenge the patriarch as follows: Council of Bishops gathered and ordered them to consider some erected on charges Arseniy. Having done the bidding of Palaeologus, the cathedral in 1265, Mr.. Deposed patriarch, although the charges against him were ridiculous and absurd. Many priests and monks did not recognize his deposition, which is why the church split and began Troubles. Over the years they have been compounded. The new patriarch Herman did not want to return the emperor to the church communion, and voluntarily left the throne svjatitelskogo. His place in 1266, Mr.. Joseph took. He finally allowed Paleologos sins perjury and brutality (Grigor: 4, 4, 8). But soon between the patriarch and the emperor, new insoluble contradictions.
The last Latin Emperor Baldwin of Constantinople, delivered right to the throne of King Charles of Anjou Apulia. Angevins are vigorously preparing a new crusade. Michael has made all efforts to prevent them: corrected dilapidated walls of the city, secured the support of Spain and Venice. In 1274, Mr.. He sent messengers to the pope and suggested the connection of Churches. Pope willingly responded to this desire, but the patriarch Joseph did not accept the connection and renounced the patriarchate. Agitated all the Orthodox clergy, and there were many notable people, who firmly held the old belief. Michael first tried to lure and entice the minds of enticing words and caresses. But after began to employ various punishments: the state of deprivation, exile, prison, blindness, whip, cutting off of hands. In the patriarchs, he lifted John Vecchi, seized with great zeal for the trouble of connecting to the Catholics.
Michael died in December 1282, Mr.. during the campaign in Thrace. Combining forces, he suddenly felt severe pain in his heart and died shortly thereafter. His son Andronicus, secretly abhor father apostasy from Orthodoxy, not only paid tribute to his royal funeral, but did not deign to even the honor that is given to an artisan or warrior. According to Gregory, several people the night of the emperor's body was carried away and buried like a heretic, excommunicated from the church (Grigor: 5, 1-2, 7).