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Manuel II Palaeologus

( Byzantine Emperor)

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Biography Manuel II Palaeologus
Manuel II Palaeologus - Byzantine emperor in 1371 - 1425 he. Son of John V. Genus. July 27, 1350, Mr.. + July 21, 1425


Manuel was the youngest son of John V. Father declared him his successor and crowned king, after Manuel rescued him from the Venetian conclusion. At the same time he deprived of the throne of his elder son Andronicus, for his treachery and unwillingness to help him in the lurch. In 1376, Mr.. Andronikos carried out a coup and seized power, and his brother along with his father imprisoned in the tower Anem. For three years they spent in detention. Then fate again changed - John and Manuel fled, went to war with the usurper and regained Constantinople (Dashkov: 'John Fifth'). In 1390, Mr.. Manuel knocked out of the capital son Andronicus, John VII, who owned Silimvriey. Then, during the eight years he had with him a stubborn fight and made up only in the face of Turkish threats (Dashkov: 'John Seventh'). In 1392, Mr.. Turks invaded Macedonia, in 1394, Mr.. Thessaloniki fell, and soon the Sultan Bayazid approached Constantinople. Almost eight years, with minor interruptions, the siege lasted romeyskoy capital. Most of the supplies brought to the city by the sea, but this was not enough. Residents were suffering from hunger, for heating the house pulled down, but kept Constantinople (Dashkov: "Manuel II '). Manuel asked for help from the King of France. His plaintive embassy aroused strong sympathy and brought some support. The authorities above your support troops was entrusted to Marshal Brusiko. He sailed with four warships and landed at Constantinople by 600 knights and 1,600 archers. Thanks to his arrival the blockade was lifted and the land, and sea. Squadrons Bayaz da retreated, several fortresses in Europe and Asia have been taken by storm by the Emperor and the marshal, who fought side by side with the same courage. But the Turks will soon have returned to a more significant number, and after a year Brusiko decided to leave the country, which has not been able either to pay the salaries of its soldiers, nor to supply them with provisions. Marshal Manuel proposed to visit Europe in order to personally seek the assistance of men and money, and advised him to put an end to all the internal strife. Manuel really made peace with John VII, and, starting in December 1399, Mr.. abroad, had left him regent of the state (Gibbon: 64).

Sailed on the ships Brusiko of the besieged capital, Manuel visited on the way to Venice, Padua, Florence, Milan and in early June 1400 g. arrived in Paris. Court of Charles VI gave the impoverished monarch once great powers rents of 30 000 silver coins annually, and provided a luxurious reception. Then the emperor crossed the English Channel and visited the English King Henry IV, who also had received him very cordially. But because of internal reasons neither he nor the other monarch could not help the emperor Romans. Showered with gifts and honors, but received no real support, Manuel through Germany and Italy back in 1403, Mr.. in Greece. Along the way he learned of the terrible defeat which Bayezid had suffered at the Battle of Ankire from the Mongol armies of Timur. The immediate threat to the capital after it was over - the emperor could breathe easy. In the summer of 1403, Mr.. He moved to Constantinople. Soon the Romans returned to Thessalonica. In subsequent years, they have significantly increased their holdings in Greece. In 1416, Mr.. restored wall, blocked the isthmus Eastman. But the respite was very short-lived. In 1411, Mr.. Turks once again laid siege to Constantinople, but retreated without having done anything. Siege of 1422, undertaken by the Sultan Murad, was much more serious. The Turks first used artillery. In August, they stormed the gates of the holy Roman, but were repulsed with heavy losses and, throwing all their guns, fled. Revolt in Asia distracted from the Sultan of European Affairs. Manuel, who was stricken with paralysis, while lying near death in Vlaherna Palace. Then the emperor recovered, but now was not he, paralyzed old man, the court determined the policy of Romans, and his son John VIII. In 1423, Mr.. Sultan invaded Greece and destroyed the wall erected at the Eastman. In the same year was sold to the Venetians Salonika, as still does not have the strength to defend it. Finally in 1424, Mr.. signed peace. The emperor agreed to territorial concessions and to pay annual tribute. A senior Paleologue fully retired, relegated to their son (Dashkov: "Manuel II ').

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