, William Stanley Jevons (Jevons, William Stanley)( The Economist)
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Biography , William Stanley Jevons (Jevons, William Stanley)
Jevons, William Stanley - known economist (1839 - 82). For several years he lived in Australia, as a chemist with the Mint in Sydney, then he was a professor of logic and political economy in London and Manchester. He was not satisfied with an abstract design politi. economical. in the spirit of Ricardo, and he is one of the first in England began to struggle against the so-called. classical school. He tried to give more vitality formulas polit. economy, with the annex to its development, along the lines of his predecessors in this respect, Cournot and Gossen, a mathematical method. Currently, a number of economists - Marshall and Edzhevort in England, Wieser, Menger and Bц╤hm-Bawerk in Austria - are in the same way. Mathematical analysis, however, does not exhaust the relations in which, as in polit. Savings reflected passions, interests and desires. Mathematics can serve only some side tool in the development of purely quantitative questions poured. savings. D. done a lot in this regard, useful in the development of statistical data on prices. He is the fruitful idea of a so-called indekonumberov prices, t. e. reducing them to some relative and permitting comparison standards.
D. and his supporters have done a lot of fair comments on the labor theory of value and the first paid serious attention to the impact, the formation of values, value of goods and supply. Themselves supporters of the D. are, however, that in the heat of debate against Ricardo and D. S. Mill, he put too much one-sided position that the value depends solely on the usefulness. "Often people think," says Dr.. in his "Principles of Political Economy": "that labor determines value, but this is only an indirect way, through the change of value of benefits due to an increase or decrease the proposal ... We must distinguish between the usefulness of the entire available supply of goods and each individual part of this reserve. The usefulness of each share of loose, when a significant portion of our needs is already saturated, the inevitable psychological laws will be less ". This lowest value of D. denotes the term final degree of utility (which has been translated in Russian the words "ultimate utility"). But as all things have a certain category on the market only one price, then the total stock items should have the same price as the loose again. It follows that "all items are exchanged according to the ultimate utility of the last of the objects, coupling with a common stock". Costs of production, according to D., determine the size of the proposal, the proposal defines the final degree of utility, and the latter - the value.
Is the general view D. Without a doubt, the quantitative relations of objects are of great importance in the determination of values, for different buyers in the market price is determined, however, not only the ultimate utility, but also the purchasing power of cash reserves they have. Price subject to market the same for rich and poor, and yet the ultimate utility for a number of infinitely varied. The most original assumed D. very few. He tries to find the law of value, assuming that the buyer already has some stock items, which he again exposes assessment. But what determines the value of the object, which was first enters into the reserve is? Finally, even if the value of items was determined by their ultimate usefulness for everyone, even in this case an exchange of goods would have been different. The ultimate usefulness of the object A is expressed for one person in two cash his subjects B. For another person, B twice more useful than cash in his A. Obviously, the first readily gives two B per A, but the second has two A per B. Exchange relation is established, therefore, so that for every two A will be given two B, or, equivalently, A will be exchanged for B, T. e. much lower than the ultimate usefulness of them for each. A special merit. Science has its research on monetary issues.
Small work D.: "Money and currency (lane. ed. 1875) translated into almost all European languages, and is unlikely to be found in other literature as clear and concise summary of many critical issues related to the theory of money. After the death of Dr.. Many of his essays on issues of money collected and published by his wife under the title: "Investigation in currency and finance" (1884). Sometimes D. loved to indulge in metaphysics. As a curiosity it may be noted that the origin of crises and their return to the ten-year period he brought in connection with the appearance of spots on the sun. Generally, he was in many respects, a supporter of the Manchester school, but in his later years his views have changed considerably. In his lively and skillfully written book: "The state in relation to labour" (1882), he is a fervent advocate of factory legislation and stressed the need to reduce the time of labor for married women and for young. Very popular in England, also enjoyed his lectures and textbooks of logic, one of which is: "Principles ot science" (Lane. ed. 1874) and translated into Russian. A detailed listing of all the works of Dr.. and articles devoted to their evaluation; cm. in "Handbuch der Staatswissenscbaften" Conrad and the "Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Economie Politique" L. Say et Chailley. The best score of the theory of literary value of D. belongs to Professor Marshall (Academy, April 1, 1872). A. Miklashevsky.