Ludwig von Mises (Ludwig von Mises)( The Economist)
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Biography Ludwig von Mises (Ludwig von Mises)
Ludwig von Mises was born on September 19, 1881 in Lemberg. His father Arthur was an engineer and worked in the Ministry of Railways management. Ludwig was the eldest of three brothers, one of them - Charles - died of scarlet fever still in its infancy, and another - Richard - was a renowned mathematician neopositivist direction, he died in 1953.
Since 1892 th to 1900. Mises attended high school and grammar school in Vienna. "After graduating from the Lyceum - recalls Mises, - I felt myself fascinated not so much a political history, many problems of economic, administrative and social history. I decided to do right, not history, as planned before, ever since high school ". Thus, in 1900, Mr.. Mises entered the Faculty of Political Sciences and Law. "Getting to the university - said Mises, - I was a strong supporter interventizma. At the same time, there was something that distinguishes me among colleagues - I was a convinced anti-Marxist ".
In 1902, while still a student, Mises published his first book, "Die Entwicklung des gutsherrlichen bauerlichen Verhaltnisses in Galizien 1772-1842". This work, according to Friedrich von Hayek, "written in the spirit of the ruling of the German Historical School of Economics and Vienna Representative Charles Gruenberg". It Gruenberg, future director of the Institute for Social Research, the founder of the Frankfurt School, Mises owes his interest in the problems of economic history. Soon, however, Mises observes theoretical shortcomings in the economic historicist school, these disadvantages are subject to severe criticism. According to him, referred to the school "has not made any worthwhile ideas" and "not written a single page in the history of science". From a methodological point of view of historical research are comparable except that with indigestible editions historiographical nature ". The historical school Mises rejected because of "poor bias of this sort of literature".
In December 1903 Mises read "Grundsatze der Volkswirtschaftslehre" Carl Menger. "Thanks to this book - he would write a few decades later - I became an economist". Four years later he met personally with Menger, numerous meetings and conversations have not gone without a trace. First in April 1909 Mises was invited to the Vienna Chamber of Commerce as a member of the Central Committee for Trade Policy.
Since 1913 Mises participating in the seminar, led by Eugen Bohm-Bawerk. "It was a great day, - says Mises, - as in the history of the University of Vienna, and for the development of political economy-day grand opening of Bohm-Bawerk his seminar". In 1912 the publication of the first German edition of "Theorie des Geldes und Umlaufsmittel" ( "The theory of money and the means of circulation"), which had Mises began in 1909. "As I expected, - notes Mises - the book was literally rejected rough with reviews of the German scientific journals. I'm not very worried, knowing that very soon my predictions will find real evidence ". John Maynard Keynes also sent his review, but the poor command of the German language did not allow him to catch the distinctive originality of the book.
In 1913, Mises was invited to teach, and in 1913-1914 he held his first seminar in the University of Vienna. During the First World War, Mises felt himself on the front of an artillery officer, and a few months before the conflict ended, he joined the economic department of Ministry of Defense.
In 1918, Mises continued to work in the Vienna Chamber of Commerce. Confirmed as an ordinary employee, surrounded by colleagues and superiors, Mises, in his own words, felt "economic conscience of the country". "Present time I post - he writes - certainly allowed to influence, comparable to the influence at the helm of a powerful political party, the Austrian. I was the leading economist of the country. But beneath this is not meant unquestioning response to my recommendations. With the support of his few friends I had to constantly keep a desperate struggle. The only thing we have made it except that to avoid catastrophe. That winter 1918-1919, the case had not gone to Bolshevism, that the industrial and banking collapse took place not in 1921, but only in 1931, all to no small extent can be considered the result of my efforts. Was impossible to do anything. In any case, I could not do more ".
In the same year, 1918 Mises was invited to the post of extraordinary professor at Vienna University. The first time giving lectures, but later, due to extremely busy, he limited himself to a seminar conducted at intervals of two hours per week, on the economic theory. "No other occupation, . - He claimed, . - Did not seem to me more desirable, . than the profession of university teacher, . although I quickly realized, . that liberals like me teaching career staff at the department of any German-language university ordered ",
His lectures on political economy, accompanied by a growing success among the students, which is understandable if we recall the pitiful state, which was then the University of Vienna. Indeed, after Wieser and moved to Frankfurt Gruenberg charge of the three departments of political economy began Othmar Spann, Hans Mayer and Ferdinand Degenfeld-Schonburg. "Spahn - recalls Mises - almost did not understand the situation in the political economic theory. Under the name of political economy, he actually preached the "universalism", which eventually turned out to National Socialism. Degenfeld the problems of political economy to understand even less. His level of teaching is hardly able to meet the demands of some second-class commercial institution. Maier was the favorite pupil Wieser, . knew the works of his teacher, . as well as the work of Menger and BцІhm-Bawerk, . Yet at the individual level has been totally deprived of the ability to think critically, . therefore not produced a single self-ideas ",
In 1919, Mises published his "Nation, Staat und Wirtschaft", defined by the author of "scientific book with a political figure,. This was an attempt to release the identity of the German and Austrian peoples from the National Socialist soot and reconstruct it on the basis of higher liberal-democratic politics. In the same 1919 Mises introduced into the scientific committee of the Verein fur Sozialpolitik in the mid-twenties, was elected a member of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Soziologie. However, in 1933, he left both of these organizations. "The impression on the faculty of economic, political science and sociology at German universities - says Mises, - was far from positive. Naturally, among them were trained and endowed with abilities nedyuzhimi people. Yet most did not own these qualities ... Many referred to themselves as narrow "specialists-theorists". Gottl and Oppenheimer suffered from delusions of grandeur, Diehl - just stupid ignoramus, Shpitof failed to publish at least one book. In other words, "it is communicating with such people contributed to a clear awareness of the impossibility of saving the German people. The fact that these imbeciles who became professors, in turn, through the selection of the best, taught at the universities of the most important subject and should form a layer of politically literate professionals. They have provided great honor, they enjoyed the attention of educated people and the public. It was terrible to think what would have emerged a generation of young, with such teachers? "
Since 1920. Mises organized a "private seminar" (Privatseminar). With the regularity of two weeks per month, from October to June, enthusiasts gathered in the office of Mises, who was in the Chamber of Commerce. "As a rule, - wrote Mises, - our meetings start at seven o'clock in the evening and ended at ten and a half. At these meetings in a relaxed atmosphere we were arguing on all major issues of political economy, social philosophy, sociology, logic, theory of knowledge and forms of human activity. It is in this circle was born a young Austrian school of economics, and culture in Vienna began one of the most brilliant periods. I was neither a leader of the seminar, nor a mentor to participants. I was simply primus inter pares, and received from these meetings more than he could expect. All members of the circle to come voluntarily, only a thirst for knowledge led us all, so the students over the years, become friends ". Among the regular participants were Gottfried Haberler, Friedrich August von Hayek, Felix Kaufmann, Fritz Machlup, Oskar Morgenstern, Alfred Schultz, Richard von sheared, Erich Voygelin.
In 1922, Mises gave the manuscript to print the book "Gemeinwirtschaft" ( "Socialism"). The key point of this work is to prove the impossibility of economic calculation in a socialist society. According to Hayek, "Socialism", the most important work of Mises. "This book - he wrote - was a challenge to a whole generation, and gradually changed the minds of many". For Mises, this work itself, . as well as two others - "Liberalismus" ( "Liberalism"), . appeared in 1927, . and a collection of articles under the general title "Kritik des Interventionismus" ( "Criticism intervetsionizma") - "in general, represent a kind of organic form of constraints of social co-operation, . in which I analyzed all the possible forms of human interaction and cooperation with the specific capabilities ",
In 1925 the house of his pupil, Felix Kaufmann Mises met with actress Margaret Herzfelde. Young widow with two children, Gita and Guido 13 years later, in 1938, will become the wife of Mises, as a witness at the wedding will be Hans Kelzen. In 1925, Mises because of a hostile attitude towards him fellow socialists and statists did not get seats in the University of Kiel. That same thing happened a few years later, with his never demanded inquiry work in Berlin.
In 1926, Mises made a voyage to the United States and on his return founded the Austrian Institute for Business Cycle Research. In 1932, having retired from the Chamber of Commerce, Mises nevertheless refuses to retire, ideas and institutions, in which he worked, were in need of protection. Meanwhile, the Social Christian Party is ready to abolish the Chambers of Commerce and replace them with a system of state corporate device.
In 1933, appeared in the light of the work "Grundpropleme der Nazionalokonomie" ( "The main problems of the national economy"), there were assembled some of the most valuable methodological essay Mises. In this work reflects the main findings of research undertaken by von Mises in Vienna. Summing up the ideas in the book, Mises wrote: "I think that presented in these papers the theory are undeniable. Faced with challenges, I developed a new methodology, indispensable for scientific analysis of the serious political problems ". He adds: "I have demonstrated that the theory of inevitable victory of socialism or interventizma absolutely can not be proved. Capitalism does not destroy itself by force of internal logic. They want to overthrow those who seek salvation in socialism and interventizme. I warmed the hope that I had written could ever serve as a practical, these ideas will find sympathy for politicians. I keep waiting for signs of change in ideology, although it was aware of the dangerous illusion of his hopes: my theory could explain the fall of a great civilization, but could not prevent the drop itself. I wanted to be a reformer, and historian, was the era of decadence ".
In the spring of 1934, quite unexpectedly Mises was invited to take a professorial post at the 1934-1935 academic year at the Department of transnational economic relations in the supreme international institute of the University of Geneva. "Arriving in Geneva in the autumn of 1934, - says Mises, - I knew that my stay there last one year. However, I remained in Geneva until the end of the 1939-1940 school year. In Vienna, I am bombarded with political plan of care and trivial detail of daily work in the Chamber of Commerce. Finally I was able to do scientific problems. The Institute was headed by two directors - William E. Rappard and Paul Manto. Teaching responsibilities were onerous: hour lecture and a two-hour seminar per week. Among the teachers and students was an atmosphere of unity and harmony. Unique school sanctified spirit of liberalism ".
In 1940, with the assistance of the publishing association Editions Union in Geneva was published "Nazionalokonomie. Theorie des Handelns und Wirtschaftens ". August 2 that year, von Mises and his wife arrived in New York. "I went from Switzerland, because he could not continue to live in a country that perceived my presence as a kind of political weight, and saw in it a threat to its security". In America, he found himself in the society of his former students from Vienna, among them Felix Kaufman, Martha Steff-Braun, Fritz Machlup, Alfred Schutz, Ilse Mintz and Adolf Ridley.
Christmas came to Mises good news about him from a dedicated fund Rockefeller Foundation grant, the news of the re-appointment, he received a year later. In the late forties Mises began work on his autobiography ( "Notes and Recollections"). Five years after the death of the scientist, in 1978, his memoirs were published by his wife Mises. Quoted excerpts are from this edition we.
From 11 January to 25 February 1942 Mises president of Mexico at the invitation of the international bank Montes de Oca has organized a series of conferences in Mexico. Returning to this country yet to von Mises in 1946 and 1949, respectively. Between 1942 m and 1943 he published several articles in the daily newspaper "The New York Times". Thus the name of the scientist is becoming more popular. A lot of conferences in various U.S. cities is its participation.
In 1944, Mises published "Omnipotent Government" ( "all-powerful State"), and a little later, "Bureaucracy" ( "Bureaucracy"). In January 1945, Mises was invited to teach at the Graduate School of Business New York University (Graduate School of Business Administration at New York University). In 1946, as Mises, and his wife received U.S. citizenship. In 1947, Mises establishes the Mont Pelerin Society. In the same year is included in the leaders of the Foundation for Economic Education, has just established Leonard E. Reed. Among the first publication by the new Fund, the book became Mises' Planned Chaos ".
In 1948, Mises organized in New York University a seminar. Over twenty-one, every Thursday, from 7.25 to 9.25 pm, at the seminar met its New York members. Among the most loyal members of the seminar, took a most active part, it is worth mentioning such as Robert G. Anderson, William Burdik, Frank Dierson, Edward Feysi, Paul Faye, Richard L. Fruin, Bettina Bin Graves, Parsi A. Graves, Henry Hazlitt, Ronald Hertz, Izodor course, Wayne Holman, Israel Kirtsner, Georg Koeter, Robert X. Miller, Sylvester Petro, Murray N. Rothbard, Hans F. Sennholts, Louis Spadaro. Seminars meetings continued until 1969. Within five years he attended two Jesuit - Professor of Economics at Weston College's father, William McKinley, and a former professor of economics at the University of Hong Kong's father, Michael Mansfeld. As with them, and with other priests Mises liked to philosophical and theological discussions on social and economic issues.
In 1949, Mises published "Human Action". This is a revised edition of the previous, we have already mentioned the Geneva edition of 1940 under the title "Nazional-okonomie", but with some modifications, designed for English-speaking readers. "" Human Action ",-X wrote. F. Sennholts - a monumental work, the most notable since the First World War, the synthesis treatise on economics. The book is like a beautiful structure erected on a solid foundation of deductive reasoning, this is a theoretical analysis of the forms of human activity. No doubt, this book - one of the most powerful creations of the human mind of our time ".
In 1952, Mises sent to press conferences collection of articles entitled "Planning for Freedom". A year later, the couple Mises arrived in Italy. August 24 they received Luigi Einaudi, president of the Italian Republic. Lunch with the president, remembers his wife Margaret, was neofitsalnym and informal. Both the President and Ludwig talked a lot about politics and about the past ".
In 1956 he published a work of Mises called "anti-capitalist mentality". The idea of this book, . the opinion of Lorenzo Infantino, . is, . that the anti-capitalist mentality - a typical characteristic of people from the category offended, unable to resist in the market competition, . they strive for social "improvement" at the expense of other, . want to get bezkonkurentnym way all the good times and for all,
In 1957, Mises passed in the print book "Theory and History" ( "Theory and History") in it, according to X. F. Sennholtsa, the definition of "common epistemology, applicable to all areas of human knowledge". Five years later, in 1962, published a paper "The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science: An Essays on Method" ( "Foundations of Economic Science: Essays on Methodology"). It Mises preprinyal strong attack against neopositivist ideas and sharply analyzed inevitable in this case catastrophic. By 1969, his most recent book is entitled "The Historical Setting of the Austrian School of Economics".
October 10, 1973 Ludwig von Mises died at the age of 92.