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Ulin Bertil (Ohlin)

( Swedish economist)

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Biography Ulin Bertil (Ohlin)
April 23, 1899, Mr.. - August 3, 1959.

Memory of the Nobel Prize in Economics, 1977
together with James Meade

Swedish economist Bertil Gotthard Ulin was born in Klippane, a village in southern Sweden. He was one of seven children of Alice Ulin, a local prosecutor, and Ingeborg Ulin. Once an unusually gifted child who. graduated from high school at the age of fifteen years, and immediately entered the University of Lund, where he studied economics, mathematics and statistics. After receiving in 1917, Mr.. with the best estimates of bachelor's degree, he enrolled at the Stockholm School of Economics and Business Administration to study under the guidance of international trade theorist, Eli Heckscher. For two years he received a master's degree in civil economy.

His graduate work, he continued at Stockholm University on the economic specialization. At the same time in 1918. U. joined the club of political economy, which belonged to the scientific elite, including such luminaries as Knut Viksell, David Davidson and Sven Brisman, and Heckscher, Gustav Cassel and Gц╤sta Bagge. Actively participating in the seminar debates of the club on free theme, I. well represented there reports on its research and participated in public debates.

Economic studies have. were interrupted when he was in 1920,. enlisted in the Swedish Economic Council, was appointed Assistant Secretary, and the next, in 1921, fulfilling his military duty in the Swedish Navy. Back in 1922. at Stockholm University, Kassel, he presented his lecture on the theory of international trade and began work on a dissertation. In the process of completing work on his doctorate, he spent the summer of 1922. Cambridge, and the academic 1922/23 r. Harvard University.

After receiving in 1924. PhD U. was appointed Professor of Economics at the University of Copenhagen. Remaining in office five years, he has revised his thesis, and translated it into English. Published in 1933. called 'Interregional and International Trade' ( "Interregional and International Trade"), this work has been universally recognized as the most significant contribution I. in economics. Reflected in her research has revolutionized the whole theory of international trade.

Central to the theory of trade have. takes Hecksher - Ulin (this model is named so in recognition of the earlier works Heckscher on the impact of trade on income distribution). As shown by U., international trade occurs between countries with different 'factor income' (differences in the relative supply of land, labor and capital), even if these countries have identical production technology. Differences in the factors of income will rise to differences in relative prices. U. backward from this situation, putting forward her allegations on the direction of trade flows.

He predicted that the country will export those goods that they would be relatively cheap in the absence of trade, and import those that have them on the road again in the absence of trade. If, . example, . Australia has a relative abundance of land, . while in England in the abundance of available labor, . Australia will export 'zemleintensivnye' products, . ie such, . for the production of which requires the use of large land areas (wool), . while England will export 'labor-intensive' goods (textiles),

Thus, Y. creates a structural framework to connect the theory of trade with the broader field of the theory of general equilibrium to determine the impact of trade on incomes and their distribution. Indeed, his work has given impetus to the emergence of 'theorem on equalization ratio factors - the price', developed by Wolfgang Stolper and Paul Samuelson. This theorem states that trade determines the trend of prices of production factors across countries to equalize. If we continue the example above, the exchange of Australian products in English will increase the price of land in Australia and raise wages in England. Trade flows will increase, providing an increasingly strong impact on prices until the price of land and wages in Australia and England did not equalize.

Thus, the trade exchange of goods has the same effect on factor prices, which could have a very free movement of factors of production between countries, if such were possible. Practical application of the theory of U. is concluded that tariffs and other trade restrictions have a negative impact on income distribution, because impede equalization of factor income. High customs duties, imposed in England for goods produced by using large size of land, for example, can only increase the proportion of landowners in England and the income share of workers in the income of Australia.

Saturated rich empirical material, Employment. "Interregional and international trade" provided the theoretical trade a range of effective hypotheses for its empirical validation. The first formal test of these hypotheses was carried out in twenty years in the works of Wassily Leontief, who showed that the United States, a country with the world's highest relative wages and exports of labor-intensive products. Various interpretations of this apparent paradox stimulated further empirical and theoretical studies of international trade issues, further development of the practical application of work have.

In 1930, after a year in Geneva at the League of Nations on World Economic Outlook, Y. Eli Heckscher's successor at the Stockholm School of Economics and Business Administration. There, he led the work on the development of macroeconomic theory and the theory of stabilization policy, often associated with the name of John Maynard Keynes. In an exchange of views with Keynes in 1929. on the Germanic war reparations have. first stressed the importance of changes in effective demand (rather than changes in relative prices), anticipating the ideas of Keynes, put forward in 1936. book 'The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money' ( "The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money").

At that time, Keynes was unable to evaluate the arguments of W., while the independent role of aggregate demand in determining national income occupied a central place in the later works of Keynes. During the Great Depression have. continued to emphasize the importance of demand management and conduct of government stabilization policy, . convince the Swedish government to resort to promote increased economic activity of fiscal policy to reduce unemployment,

In 1938. U. written it turned out great influence of two articles about the so-called Stockholm theory of savings and investment. Describing the views of the Stockholm School of relation (in terms of export "ex ante") between the national income, savings, investment and interest rates, it focuses on the dynamic coherent economic structure. According to the model of the Stockholm School, . National income is the result of a dynamic process, . during which plans for investment and consumption one period determine the levels of employment, . which form the basis for the respective plans of the next period, . and so on to infinity,
. This same dynamic approach and the book reflects the Y. 'The problem of stabilization of employment' ( "The Problem of Employment Stabilization", 1949), in which he showed that the pressure of excess demand, caused by expansionary government policies may give rise to chronic inflation.

Elected in 1938. in the Swedish Parliament, Y. from 1944 to 1967. was the leader of the Swedish Liberal Party, and from 1944 to 1945. served as minister of trade in the coalition government. At this time, his research and political activities have helped to form the Swedish welfare state, in which classical liberalism was combined with elements of social democracy. In 50 ... 60-ies. Swedish model represents a balance between capitalism and socialism.

In the years following the Second World War, the Swedish Social Democrats (with Gunnar Myrdal as a mentor) in favor of the planned economy. Their main opponent was U. In the elections of 1948. Liberal Party have. won a decisive victory, that the Social Democrats returned to their traditional pragmatism, again expressing willingness to cooperate with private business. U. maintained friendly relations with his old friend and rival Gunnar Myrdal, despite major differences in their views on public policy. Paul Samuelson praised the friendship, saying that 'with it could take the example of economists around the world'.

In 1977. U. and James Meade shared memory of the Nobel Prize in Economics "for pioneering contributions to the theory of international trade and international capital movements'. In his speech at the presentation Assar Lindbeck, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, noted that the work I. 'confirmed, . that it can be tough as the cornerstone for further theoretical work, . and for practical application ', . and, . that it is' inspired scientists to conduct a large number of studies in the field of international economics, . beyond the strictly formalized models',
. In his Nobel lecture I. compared 'two cases of serious international depression in countries with a preferred orientation to a market economy'. He also drew attention to differences in economic factors operating during the Great Depression and during the world recession gripped the mid 70-ies.

In 1931, Mr.. U. married Evy Kruse, they had a son and two daughters. He died on August 3, 1979, Mr.. during holidays, which carried out in northern Sweden.

In addition to the Nobel Prize, Y. was awarded the Order of the Royal Northern Star of the Swedish Government (1961) and was included by the Government of Denmark in the number of holders of the Order Danneborga.

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