Houston Stewart Chamberlain (Chamberlain)( English writer, sociologist, philosopher)
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Biography Houston Stewart Chamberlain (Chamberlain)
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart (Chamberlain), (1855-1927), English writer, sociologist, philosopher, a forerunner of Nazi ideology. Born September 9, 1855 in Saussi, Hampshire, England, the son of a British admiral. He studied science in Geneva, aesthetics and philosophy in Dresden. He became an ardent admirer of Richard Wagner. He married the daughter of the composer, Eva Wagner, Chamberlain, in 1908 settled in Bayreuth, do much more fanatic of all the German than the Germans themselves. During the 1-st world war in the German press published many anti-British article, which earned it the nickname at home "English Changeling". The ideological concept Chamberlain later found a continuation in the theories of Hitler outlined in "Mein Kampf". Chamberlain died Jan. 9, 1927.
The main work of Chamberlain, brought him notorious - "Fundamentals of the XIX century" ( "Die Grundlagen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts") published in Munich in 1899. Rationalist interpretation of European history Chamberlain explained the author's negative attitude toward Christianity in general, . aristocratic contempt for the masses and overly romanticized perception of Germans as a nation, . destined to rule the world,
. Having set himself the task to reveal the basis, . which rested the XIX century, . Chamberlain wrote, . that European culture was the result of the merger of five components: the art, . literature and philosophy of ancient Greece, the legal system and form of government of Ancient Rome, Christianity in its Protestant version, reviving the creative spirit of the Teutonic, and repulsive, the destructive influence of Jews and Judaism in general.,
. In the 1 st volume of his book, Chamberlain examines events before 1200, the legacy of the ancient world
. From Hellenism came an unprecedented flowering of the human intellect - wrote Chamberlain. - Greeks worked everywhere - in language, religion, politics, philosophy, science, history, geography. The peak of this creative spirit was Homer. But the legacy of the Greeks were, and the dark side: severe short-sighted democracy, the lack of high politics, morality and the decline of an old religion. World indebted to the Romans, to relieve him of the Semitic-Arab enslavement and provided the opportunity to "Indo-Teutonic Europe to become a beating heart and the thinking brain of all mankind". Greece, unlike Rome, according to Chamberlain, gravitated to Asia. However, many baffled and perplexed by the fact that despite the legacy of two millennia, Rome has failed to confront the disintegration of its vast territory. Experience a vibrant Indo-European race reviewed and brilliantly used it mixed southwest Asian nation, which again led to the destruction of the unity of its characteristics.
Chamberlain then turned to the heirs of the ancient. Immediately had to face, "he wrote, with the study of racial issues. He spoke about the need to show courage and foresight to safely slip "between the Scylla of science is almost inaccessible and the Charybdis of volatile and unjustified generalizations". Rome has shifted its center of gravity of civilization in the West, unconsciously, the act of completing the global significance. But Rome has left an incredible mish-mash of different types and races. Amid this chaos, people (Voelkerchaos) were the Jews - the only race that has managed to preserve the purity of blood. Force is opposed to the tiny but influential Jewish nation, history elected Aryans. "At present, these two forces - the Jews and Aryans - no matter how clouded their future is the recent chaos, are facing each other, albeit not as enemies or friends, but, still, as the eternal enemies". "Nothing is more convincing - wrote Chamberlain - the identity of the nation. A person belonging to a certain pure race, never lose this feeling. Race raises man above him, gives him an extraordinary, almost supernatural energy that sets him apart as an individual out of the chaotic mixing of peoples, gathered from all over the world. Thick blood flowing in your veins invisible, will bring rapid flourishing of life, the future will bring ". The main secret stories that thoroughbred race becomes a sacred. Bezrodnyi and non-national chaos of the last days of the Roman Empire was disastrous, nearly fatal circumstance, and that Aryans had to correct this disastrous situation.
. In the 2 nd Volume Chamberlain examines the revival of a new Germanic world and the fight against the greatest force for world domination
. In this struggle involved, according to Chamberlain, three, seeking to dominate the religious ideal: the East (the Greeks), North (Aryans) and Rome. In the north of the former Roman Empire Aryans succeeded in creating a new culture, which "is undoubtedly the greatest of all that has been achieved by mankind so far". All that is not Aryan - is alien to the elements that must be eradicated. Jews have become the heirs of the Roman racial chaos, the same Aryan race was responsible for the spiritual salvation of mankind. All the achievements of science, industry, economics and art inspired and moved forward by the Aryans. Thus, XIX century was based on a solid foundation of Aryan.
. Through the whole book Chamberlain are mainstreamed two main themes: Aryans - as creators and bearers of civilization and the Jews - as a negative racial power, destructive and degenerating factor history
. Idealizing pure Aryans, Chamberlain regarded them as the only bulwark of world development. Won crumbling Roman empire, healthy and courageous children of nature - the Aryans, revived the western civilization and bring with them previously unknown idea of freedom.
. As opposed to creative genius of the Aryans Chamberlain put forward a crude civilization of the Jews, who, in his opinion, were strangers in the XIX century, threatened to occupy a disproportionate place in the life of Germany
. The Jews deserved the sentence, but not from the standpoint of low-hatred or suspicion, but from the standpoint of unattainable heights of Aryan superiority. Almost all the outstanding and truly free people, wrote Chamberlain, from Tiberius to Bismarck, consider the presence of Jews in their midst as a social and political risk. Chamberlain describes the birth of Christ the most important date in the history of mankind. "No war, no change of dynasties, or natural disasters, or the discovery did not have and share the significance that could be compared with a short earthly life of the Galilean". But for all should be clear, he wrote that Christ was not a Jew, it was not a drop of Jewish blood, and who called him a Jew, were simply ignorant or hypocritical people.
. "Basics" Chamberlain became enormously popular in Germany after the Kaiser Wilhelm II called his monograph of the work of the greatest importance
. Critics praised the book avidly for the brilliant supreme eloquence, vast erudition and extraordinary insight of the author. In England, as this book was a fierce attack: it either ridiculed or reviled severe abuse. Chamberlain called "street preacher, is clothed in the cloak of the Roman orator, a Christian priest in a cassock". About his work saying that it "hangover belching drunk shoemaker". Work Chamberlain regarded no more, no less as "a clever synthesis of Schopenhauer and Gobineau, reflecting the more blatant and brazen assertion of mystical kinship Aryans and Divine Providence."
. American supporters of the Nordic School of Chamberlain proclaimed the greatest architect of the Nordic theory, . what Theodore Roosevelt returned, . Chamberlain's theory that the proceeds from the silly hatred and that his "brilliant lapses are a normal person look like absolute madness, . reflection of abnormal psyche ..,
. He loves David, and on this basis, he immediately makes his Aryan. He likes of Michelangelo, Dante or Leonardo da Vinci, and he immediately said that they - Aryans. He does not like Napoleon, and therefore argues that Napoleon - a true representative of bezrasovogo chaos ".
Hitler's racial theories outlined in "Mein Kampf", largely originate from the arbitrary provisions of the Framework Chamberlain. While Hitler never mentions his name, and most likely are not familiar with his treatise, as was hardly able to penetrate the intricacies of the metaphysics of the author, it is likely that he absorbed the theory of Chamberlain indirectly. Anyway, the thesis of the superiority of the Aryan race and the "Jewish danger", expressed in a more simple and rude form, became a leitmotif of "Mein Kampf".