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CHKHEIDZE Nikolai Semenovich

( The Party leader)

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Biography CHKHEIDZE Nikolai Semenovich
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Chkheidze Nikolay (Karlo) Semenovich (1864, with. Ways of Kutaisi Province. - June 7, 1926, п⌡п╣п╡п╦п╩я▄, near Paris). Studied in Kutaisi Gymnasium, joined a volunteer at the Novorossiysk University Press (Odessa), in 1889 moved to the Kharkov Veterinary Institute, to-ing left during studench. unrest. He moved to Batumi, in 1892 entered into with-d. org-tion "Messameh dashi (" Third Party "), in 1898, together with the entire org-tion entered RSDLP, since 1903 the Menshevik. In 1898-1902 vowel Batum. Gore. Duma, a member of Gore. Boards. Participant Revolution of 1905-1907 in Georgia, worked in the c-d. Press. In 1907 elected a vowel Tiflis. Gore. Duma, the then Minister. 3rd State. Duma, member of. her e-SV. fraction. In November. YU.O. March from Paris, wrote P.B. Axelrod: "The local Caucasians say that the selected Chkheidze - the most educated Marxist in the Caucasus" ( "Letters P.B. Axelrod and YU.O. Martov, Berlin, 1924,. 173). After the defeat Revolution of thought that the Duma is the work of DOS. task of the Party. Autumn of 1912 elected Minister. 4 th State. Duma, headed by Menshevik. fraction. After Vienna, Dr. S.. Conference (August. 1912) entered RSDLP OK. When the 1-st world. war Menshevik. faction led by Chkheidze with the Bolsheviks July 26, 1914 voted against the military. credits. In 1915 he announced in the Duma resolution Zimmerwald Conference. July 19 was made in the Duma statement Menshevik. faction, in a swarm-proposed subordinate "all the individual tasks, all Dep. demands of the people "Chapter. goal - the establishment of State authority. Duma: further said: "Production of built into their business. Saving themselves, they put the country on the brink of ruin. If people do not take into its hands the fate of the country, the defeat is inevitable. Or State. Duma is aware of this DOS. task, or the people will pass through the Duma "(Mintz, II, History Conducted. October, 2 nd Ed., T. 1, Moscow, 1977,. 304), supported the entry of workers in Voen.-prom. to-you. In 1915-16 the enemy "strike fever" Petrograd. proletariat. Autumn of 1916 in the Caucasus called "stop the disorder."

25 Feb.. 1917, when in Petrograd were mass demonstrations not seen in them that the Revolution of. 27 February. joined the Provisional. Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet of RD, was then izoran the Executive Committee of the Council and its pre. The same day came during. K-State T. Duma. On the night of March 2 participated in the negotiations on the formation of Provisional. Prospect Island, contributed to the success of negotiations, but to enter the Prospect of the Minister of Labor refused. Upon resumption of the withdrawal of the Central Organ of the Mensheviks "working papers" - a member of its editorial. March 29, opened the Vseros. meetings of the Boards RNC. elected him before.: said: "We go out to all those who favor a strong demand ... Governments ... immediately renounce any zavoevat. and annexationist, tasks. [...] This is ... the step that will lead us directly to the question of ending the war ... We in domestic politics are going after those who send their work ... for ... solving those problems, which are set by the revolution "(" Vseros. Meeting Soviets ROD ". Stenografich. report, M - L., 1927,. 26). Evening, April 3. headed the delegation of the Petrograd. RDA Council, meeting on Finlyansky station returned from exile VM. Lenin said: "I think we should go for the serried ranks ... victorious conclusion of the revolution ... first task is now for us is to defend the revolutionary free Russia from all attacks from within - from the counter-revolutionary forces, and externally - from the encroachments of foreign invaders "(" Roar-tion 1917 ", t. 1,. 173). April 4. prev. joint meeting with the-d. decomp. directions (the Bolsheviks, the Mensheviks, the non-factionalism, national); called for the immediate establishment of a center of unity Congress. Condemned April Theses, Lenin emphasized the "immaturity" of Russia, its unwillingness to socialist revolution. Summing up the discussion, said: "Regardless of the revolution, Lenin left alone, while we go our own way". Represented the executive committee of the Petrograd. Of the RDA for the 1 st Congress of the Military. and Workers' Deputies armies and rear Zap. Front (Minsk, 7-17 May.) and the Meeting of Delegates Front (Petrograd, April 24-May 4), defended the idea of "revolutionary. defencism, supported course ACCESSED. Prospect Island.

During April. participated in crisis talks on a new agreement with the Provisional. Prospect PTO. April 27. received a letter from Prince. G.E. Lvov suggested Socialists to enter the Prospect of. Evening addressed a meeting of leaders of the Petrograd. Council: "When we defend against the attacks is not our, . a bourgeois government, . saying, . that no government is able to instantly restore peace and to implement radical reforms, . the masses listen to us with confidence and conclude, . that in these circumstances to go to the government socialists should not be,
. But if we enter into the government. We hope to awaken the masses to something substantially new, something we actually can not do "(IG Tsereteli. Recol. on Feb. Revolution of t. 1, Paris, 1963,. 128). He offered to enter the Prospect of SRs and Mensheviks - do not enter, "to defend him before the masses" (ibid.,. 129). May 1, fearing, he said, "the collective resignation of the Burj. Cabinet and the aggravation of his political crisis, participated in negotiations on forming a coalition. Prospect Island. At Vseros. Conf. Menshevik. org and the United Nations (7-12 May, Petrograd), re-elected in RSDLP OK.

Opening the 1-st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC (3-24 June), saying that his political point, to-ing country is going through, "very critical". Exit seen in the "unity of all revolutionary. forces "(" 1 st Congress of the Soviets ", t. 1,. 4): elected before. Congress: June 9, the initiator of the discussion on the demonstration, to-Rui Bolsheviks have scheduled a June 10 - ".. the next day can be fatal" (ibid.,. 375), Central Executive Committee elected at the RNC "outside the party. lists ", the head of his Presidency.

In the July days denounced the Bolsheviks as the instigators and conspirators, announced full support of the Provisional. Prospect Island, but rejected the charges against Lenin and RSDLP (b) charges of spying for Germany.

12-15 August. participated in the State. meeting (Moscow). August 14. read out on behalf of the Central Executive Committee Declaration roar. democracy: "In the face of their Councils RKSD roar. Democrats did not seek power, did not seek a monopoly for themselves. She was ready to support any government that could protect the interests of the country and the Revolution of "(" State. meeting, with. 78): The Declaration stresses that the Socialists did not protect the interests of the Dep. classes and groups, but the common interests of Russia and the Revolution of; called for the org-tion defense, but did not contain the usual documents to the formula for peace "without annexations and indemnities", contains measures to improve the health of economies and societies. life warned against solutions th. issue "without prior arrangement, by isolating Russia from its individual parts" (ibid.,. 79-80).

At the meeting of the Petrograd. Council RDA August 18. in which 4 members voted against the abolition of the death penalty at the front. In Merge, the Congress of the Mensheviks (18-26 August 'Petrograd) was elected in RSDLP (o) on the list "defencists". During performances L.G. Kornilov turned for help to Kronstadt, on to-ryh was entrusted the protection of the Central Executive Committee of Soviets RDA and Time. Prospect Island; tsp. K-ta nar. combating the counter-tion.

After the adoption of the Petrograd. By the RNC on August 31. Bolshevik, the resolution "On Power" Chkheidze with others. Members of the Presidency Council - the Social Revolutionaries and Mensheviks declared his intention to resign. Sep 9. When at a meeting of the Petrograd. Council's resolution of the Mensheviks and SRs of confidence Bureau has collected 414 votes, and the Bolshevik - 519 (abstained 67), Chkheidze leaving the post of chairman, said: "The Presidency is no longer" (Mintz, II, Decree. cit., t. 2,. 745). At the post before. Petrograd. Council RDA was replaced by LD. Trotsky.

Sep 14. as before. Central Executive Committee RNC opened Dem. meeting. Failures in dealing with DOS. Revolution of the issues, the power crisis and the Kornilov revolt was explaining the influence of the Cadets, with their rate of capture of Constantinople, as well as the Bolsheviks, with their idea of Socialist. Revolution of. "How to be what do I do? Meeting should clearly and specifically to answer these questions. The country is waiting for a revolutionary power to paradise-consistently, without any hesitation to accomplish the program to-heaven is necessary for the country "(Startsev VI, collapse of the Kerensky, L.. 1982,. 88). As the program proposed declaration, Rui-announced August 14. of State. Meeting in Moscow, Sep 20., at the last meeting Dem. meeting, it was adopted. 22-24 Sept.. participated in a meeting on org-tion power. In the course of his work, complaining that he was "sick of words", made concessions to the Cadets, stating that the program on August 14 'of course, necessary, but not a "fetish" (ibid.,. 96). There was an external. consent, formed another coalition. Provisional. Prospect of (recent). He went into the set up meeting time. Council Ros. Republic (Pre-Parliament), but soon left for vacation in Georgia and more in Russia did not return. Elected members to establish. Coll. (from Zakavk. izbirat. District).

October. roar-tion 1917 categorically not taken. In Feb.. 1918 headed Zakavk. Seim, who became in April. vyssh. body of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. After the formation of the Georgian Democratic Republic before. Inaugural. cit. Georgia. Supervised weight. delegation at the talks with West. countries on the recognition of "de jure" independence of Georgia. In 1919 was aimed at the Versailles Peace Conference., According to NN. Jordania, Chkheidze received from him written instructions: if they adopted all the proposals of the delegation, that Georgia is ready to accept the protectorate of Great Britain or France with the condition of sovereignty in internal. affairs, "adding it was known only to me and Carlo, and in my responsibility" (Jordania H. My Life, Stanford, 1968,. 92). Upon returning to Georgia Chkheidze participated in the drafting of its constitution.

In 1921, after Kr. Army Owls. Russia in Georgia, emigrated. He lived in Paris, participated in the cargo. c-d. emigration. Suicide. He left a suicide note: "Watch the movement and lead ...". At his funeral IG. Tsereteli said: "Without the direct contact with the people, he lost his power of resistance. Even the mighty oak, overturned by a storm, torn from its feeding ground, dies. Thus died and Chkheidze "(" Social. Bulletin, 1926, No. 12, with. 10).

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