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( The King of France)

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Biography CARL X
Charles X (1757-1836) - King of France of the Bourbon dynasty, who ruled in 1824-1830 he. The son of the Dauphin Louis Joseph and Mary Saxon. Wife: from 16 November 1773, Mr.. Maria Theresa, daughter of King Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia.
Genus. October 9. 1757 g. + November 6. 1836 g.

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Prince Charles, had received at birth the title of Count of Artois, was a man not too diligent in the sciences, thoughtless and stubborn. In many respects he was the complete opposite of his more prudent and thorough elder brother, the Comte de Provence (later Louis XVIII). The first decade of his life he spent in luxury and idleness, and had at that time many amorous adventures.

. Since the beginning of the revolution, in the summer of 1789, the Comte d'Artois in disputes with Louis XVI insisted on the most decisive measures against wayward members of the Third Estate
. He is so compromised that immediately after the fall of the Bastille was forced to retire abroad. Here, his yard has become the true center of the counter-revolutionary emigration. Carl was indispensable organizer and participant in all its major military action against revolutionary France: Campaign 1792, landing on the peninsula of Quiberon, and the expedition in the Vendee in 1795, Mr.. The defeat of the monarchist counter-revolution forced him to temper enthusiasm. He settled in England, where he lived until 1814, Mr.. For many years he was in connection with the Countess de Polastron. On his deathbed in 1805, she took Karl word that he would cease his wild life, which is still led, and turn to God. Since then, the Comte d'Artois was jealous of morality, piety, and came under the strong influence of their spiritual father of his former mistress Abbot Latilya.

In 1814, Mr.. Carl is actively involved in the restoration of the monarchy. In March, he was negotiating with the Allies, and on April 12 and drove to Paris for a few days before the arrival of Louis XVIII ruled France as regent. In March 1815, during the 'Hundred Days', he was sent to his brother in Lyons, to become the head of the army, but his forces were taking the battle moved to the side of Napoleon. Charles was forced to flee. After the second restoration of Charles has always been in opposition to the elder brother. According to contemporary accounts, the Comte d'Artois, in contrast to the ever-patient Louis XVIII, was always full of grandeur and power, had refined manners and was considered the embodiment of courtly elegance. He had a chivalrous generosity, gentle manners and kindness of heart, but had limited intelligence and a narrow outlook, was the subject of numerous aristocratic prejudices, very strong and stubborn in their view few. He always considered excessive, the political concessions that went to his brother, and made no secret of his ultra-royalist views. His household in the Pavillon de Marsan became the center of fanatical exiles who tried to play the role of 'kontrpravitelstva'. When in 1824.

Charles ascended the royal throne, he was already 66 years old, but he was determined to realize all their political projects, and to restore in France the regime that existed prior to 1789. From the army were dismissed 250 Napoleon's generals. Adopted shortly blasphemy laws carrying the death penalty for desecrating the Holy Sacrament. Another law, 'a billion', intended to pay substantial compensation to all immigrants who have suffered losses during the revolution. An attempt was made to revive some cancellations feudal institutions (eg, the right of primogeniture in the division of inheritance) and to limit the freedom of the press. But these were only small steps preparatory to the abolition of the Constitution of 1814, Mr.. In August, 1829. King to head the government of the Duke Polignac, who commissioned and a more radical restrictive laws. July 25, 1830, Mr.. ordinances appeared to abolish freedom of the press, dissolving the Chamber of Deputies, improving the electoral qualification and calling new elections to the Chamber of. When news of these important laws that radically changes the political system of France, there has been no action in case of riots. Meanwhile, on July 26 has already started a demonstration at the Palais Royal.

The crowd shouted: 'Long live the Charter! Down with the ministers! " Polignac, traveling in a carriage along the boulevards, barely escaped massacre. July 27, most printers, due to the abolition of freedom of the press, was closed.. Printing workers, scattered on the streets, dragged to a job other specialties. Excited Parisians began to build barricades. In the evening there were the first clashes in the Rue Saint-Honore, where troops have occupied several barricades. On the night of July 28 uprising, organized under the leadership of former military, the Carbonari, and a small handful of energetic Republicans, composed of students and workers. On the morning of 28 th Street had been crossed by hundreds of barricades. About 11 o'clock the troops attempted to take the offensive, but to the 3 rd hour of the day were driven back to the Louvre and began to prepare for defense. Some regiments went over to the rebels. On the morning of July 29 Parisians stormed the palace. Swiss Guard first fled, dragging the rest of the troops. Soon on the Louvre and the Tuileries were stuck back tricolor. Hunt in Saint-Cloud King that day only realized how serious the situation. On the night of 29 to 30 July, he agreed to the resignation of the government and abolished the ordinances Polignac. But it was too late.

July 31, King gave the insistence of his sister, the Duchesse de Berry, and moved from St. Cloud to the Trianon, and then in Rambouillet. Aug. 1, he signed an ordinance on the appointment of the Duke of Orleans regent of the kingdom (in fact, Duke has already taken the title on July 31 from the Chamber of Deputies). August 2, King abdicated in favor of his infant grandson, the Duke of Bordeaux, and August 15, sailed to England. First, he took the castle Luluort, then settled in a castle in Scotland Holirud. Autumn 1832. Carl moved to Prague, where the Austrian Emperor took the Bourbons of his palace in Hradд-any. Finally, in 1836, Mr.. He decided to move to a small town Hertz. On the way Carl contracted cholera and died soon after arrival.

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