Georges Clemenceau (Clemenceau, Georges Eugene Benjamin)( The largest figure of bourgeois France)
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Biography Georges Clemenceau (Clemenceau, Georges Eugene Benjamin)
Clemenceau (Clemenceau) George (28.9.1841, Muyron-en-Pare - 24/11/1929, Paris), French politician and statesman. Educated Physician. Member of the French Academy (1918). During the Second Empire was involved in the radical republican movement. After a series of defeats France in war with Prussia (1870-71) advocated its continuation, as a member of the National Assembly voted against the peace treaty of Frankfurt 1871. During the Paris Commune of 1871 attempted to reconcile the Communards of Versailles. Since the early 80-ies. - Leader of the bourgeois radicals. Put forward a plan for the broadcast of democratic reforms, partly borrowed from the program of the Working Party (founded 1879).
Being a supporter of a clear war of revenge against Germany, Clemenceau was performed in 80-ies. in the Chamber of Deputies and the press condemned the French ruling circles of the policy of colonial expansion, weakened, in his view, the position of France in Europe. These interventions contributed to the fall of cabinets Gambetta, Ferry, Brisson, established his reputation as "destroyer of ministries". For temperamental and harsh statements in Parliament received the nickname "Tiger". Indirectly involved in the Panama affair Clemenceau was elected to Parliament in 1893. Actively defended A. Dreyfus. In 1902 and 1909 was elected to the Senate. In March and October 1906 the Minister of Internal Affairs. In October 1906-July 1909 Chairman of the Council of Ministers. Coming to power, and used violent repression against the labor movement. In the years before the 1 st World War, 1914-18, worked intensively chauvinistic and militaristic propaganda, . fought against the socialists, . sharply criticized his political rivals from the bourgeois camp R. Poincare, . A. Briand, . J. Cayo enough for their hard line in domestic and foreign policy,
Since the beginning of the war demanded that it continue until the defeat of Germany, without regard to any victims. In November 1917 became chairman of the Council of Ministers and at the same time Minister of War, attempted to establish the country's dictatorial regime. Active organizer of Soviet intervention, supported by the White Guard generals - Kolchak and Denikin. He played a major role in the suppression of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. As chairman of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919-20, the head of the French delegation on it, one of the authors of the Treaty of Versailles 1919, Clemenceau sought to establish military-political hegemony of French imperialism in Europe. Defeated in the presidential election of 1920, withdrew from active political life.
Clemenceau, Georges (Clemenceau, Georges Eugene Benjamin) (1841-1929), Prime Minister of France. Born September 28, 1841 in Muyeron-en-pair in the Vendee. He studied medicine at Nantes, then in Paris, where he participated in the opposition movement and was imprisoned. In 1865, he taught French language and riding in the women's school in Stamford (pc. Connecticut, USA). In 1870 Clemenceau returned to Paris and began practice. After the fall of Napoleon III became a member of the National Assembly, joined the radicals. In 1871-1876 - member of the municipal council of Paris. In 1871 he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies of the Third Republic. Contributed to the fall of the Cabinet G. Ferri (1885). Supported the War Minister, General J. Boulanger, but soon changed his attitude to actively participated in the struggle for the resignation of President Grevy, J. (1887) and contributed to the nomination of S. Carnot.
Clemenceau turned the newspaper (La Justice ") in the body of Republicans, has published several articles, written a novel and two plays. He took an active part in the Dreyfus. Speaking against the reactionary nationalism, . Clemenceau expressed his position in a number of articles, . which have been published since late 1897 in the newspapers "La Justice" and "L'Aurore" It was he who suggested the name of the writer E. Zola's famous letter to the President of the Republic J'accuse! (J'accuse!), . which was published on January 13, 1898,
. In 1899 Clemenceau founded the weekly "Le Bloc".
In April 1902 he was elected senator and entered into an alliance with the radical socialists, but then took a more moderate position. In March 1906 Clemenceau was appointed interior minister in the cabinet Sarena F.. Sent troops against the striking miners, which led to a break with the Socialists. In October of that year, Clemenceau became prime minister.
In 1913 founded the daily newspaper "L'Homme Libre", ( "Free Man"). Collected materials for a multivolume work on the development of democracy, whose ideas expounded in the lectures during his visit to Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay (1910).
Since the beginning of the First World War Clemenceau stepped up criticism of, and in September 1914 when his newspaper was banned, began to publish it under the name "chained man" (L'Homme enchanenu). Clemenceau insisted on continuing the war until victory. In 1917, when the defeatist mood reached its peak, formed a "cabinet of victory", which was appointed Minister of War. Persuade the Allies to appoint a Chief Marshal Foch and return to France, 120 thousand. American soldiers.
Clemenceau was the chairman of the Paris Peace Conference and a senior member of the Council of Ten, and then of the four. In his view, Germany had to pay reparations to compensate the cost of all the destruction, the Saar and France to allocate the entire left bank of the Rhine. In the elections of 1919 the Party of Radicals and Radical Socialists lost more than half the seats in Parliament. In 1920 Clemenceau was defeated in the struggle for the presidency and left the political activity.
Last ten years of his life devoted to literary activity Clemenceau. In 1926 published a book on Demosfene, next year - two-volume evening thoughts (Au soir de la pense, 1927), which can be called his philosophical testament. 1928 saw the publication of his book on Monet. The last book, Greatness and misery of victory (Grandeurs et misres d'une victoire, 1930), was published after his death.
Clemenceau died in Paris on November 24, 1929.