CöLzanne, Paul( Artist)
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Biography CöLzanne, Paul
Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) - a name familiar to anyone even slightly interested in painting. French art of the past century and a creative way of many European artists of the beginning of this century, as it were divided into an invisible feature of the two phases "to Cezanne" and "after". Introducing artistic discoveries of the wizard, has spent most of his life in his native town in the south of France - Aix, was a turning point in the development of many artists. What is the essence of renewal, . has brought the art of Cezanne? Have become paradigmatic of his words about the laws of constructing the landscape: "treat nature by means of the cylinder, . ball, . cone - and all in the long-term reduction, . that is, each party subject, . plan should be directed to the central point,
. Line parallel to the horizon, the length of the pass ... Line perpendicular to this horizon, given the depth. And as in nature, we human beings perceive more deeply than the surface, it is necessary to introduce variations in the light transmitted by red and yellow tones, a sufficient number of blue, to feel the air ". But Cezanne was not strong theoretical statements. His contribution to the art - landscapes, still lifes, a few thematic pictures and portraits.
Age artist was coeval Impressionists. However, his work has already constituted the next stage in the evolution of artistic vision. As if arguing with the Impressionists, . from whom he learned, . Cezanne said, . he wanted to create paintings for the museum - that is to pass an immutable, . everlasting image of nature as opposed to Monet and Pissarro, . who sought to grasp the changeable features of nature,
. His remarks on the basic shapes and lines was justified desire to create in each picture a solid constructive basis. Types south of France - a large series of landscapes with Mount Saint-Victoire and other works, . as well as still lifes, . where varied images of apples, . jug, . drapes or some other mundane things, . were important to, . that each picture has established a special spatial system, . excellent by their own laws on simple rules of direct prospects, . triumphant in painting from the time of Brunelleschi and Piero della Francesca,
. In one painting Cezanne could connect several points of view on the subject, methods of direct and reverse perspective. These innovations claimed the right artist to create a special art world works, inspired by nature, but not reproducing her image as a direct reflection.
. Cezanne admired by nature, he claimed its grandeur and beauty
. But he dared to violate the laws of constructing the landscape, formed in painting since Poussin. Initially, it brought him the fate of an outcast, then - the worldwide fame of the founder of modern art.
For his discoveries in painting, Cezanne came, of course, did not immediately. He studied in Aix in college, where he studied ancient languages and ancient literature. Living in Aix, could feel the spirit of the cultural traditions of the Mediterranean - the cradle of European civilization. This has been facilitated and the surrounding nature. Near CöLzanne was his friend - the future famous writer Emile Zola. They tied romantic friendship. Zola first went to the capital and began his journey as a journalist, art critic, and many ideas that he advanced in his articles, discussed them in interviews and letters to Cezanne. When Cezanne visited Paris, Zola became his guide, a mediator when meeting with artists and writers. Early paintings by Cezanne, created them in the 1860's, written in very dark colors, with lots of black, shows that sometimes the artist superimposed paint directly with a knife, broad layers. At first, his work is fanned by the tradition of Romanticism. Cezanne credited Victor Hugo, studying painting by Delacroix.
. Understanding the Impressionists, and especially with Camille Pissarro, with whom he went to the sketches and even copied one of his painting, Cezanne made completely changed his palette
. He got rid of all black, began to write pure colors, smaller quiet smear. But if the Impressionists biggest role was played by the immediacy of experience, . visual image in the plane of the canvas, . then Cezanne, even in the works of early 1870 - the period of greatest intimacy with Pissarro and his team, . in the first place stood the creation of sound tracks, . where space is not passed flattened, . like the Impressionists, . and departing in depth.,
. Landscape Impressionist often connected with the genre painting
. In Monet's coats on the Seine gliding sail yachts, with Pissarro can be seen in the left field peasant plow. We Cezanne landscape always deserted. This is a world which does not affect human activities. Landscape "Banks of the Marne" (1888, Museum of Fine Arts named after AS Pushkin, Moscow) was written in central France. As it is close to the motif selected impressionist paintings, but Cezanne seems frozen river, with mirror-smooth surface, fixed wings are trees on the banks. Chord restrained cold, through the picturesque layer here and there lurks a white primer canvas.
. In the landscape of Mount Saint-Victoire "(1900, State Hermitage, Leningrad), a powerful bluish lump rises in the sky, the king over the warm yellow-ocher wrinkled foothills covered with swirling blue-green vegetation
. The feeling of the coming array of mountains, the ability to transmit them to bring together the greatness of Cezanne with Poussin, despite the difference in their artistic systems.
. Still Life by Cezanne, which he wrote a very long time, sometimes for several months, and gives the same feeling of grandeur, but embodied in the small, everyday things
. His apple could not have bit into. The folds of white napkins are just as great in its architectonic role as flutes of ancient columns. Cezanne building form, looking for basics, reveals the structure of complex forming. His still-lifes - a creative laboratory master. They are repelled at the beginning of the century Cubists - Picasso and other artists. But if Cezanne Identify and form, leaving its real image, the Cubists razyali subject in part) by analyzing its structure.
. Much could be told about the problems that are solved in their work Cezanne, on the riddles, which he left for his research
. About Cezanne written many books. Various art historians constructed their theories to explain the principles of his art, a polemic with each other. Biographers and popularizers have described the dramatic life of Cezanne - a man of passionate, restless, proud and lonely. The first reflected in literature, art and life by Cezanne were in the famous novel by Emile Zola's "Creation", released in 1886. The hero of the novel Claude Lanta is not entirely written off with Cezanne, a collective image of the representative of the new galaxy of artists, whose interests are initially defended Zola's criticism. But the writer was disappointed in the new art movement, and Lanta depicted in his novel as a failure. The publication of the novel became the cause of the break with Zola, his former friends and artists.
Art of Cezanne's audience did not like and did not recognize even when the Impressionists were already in vogue. Recognition of the artist comes from young artists in 1890 - 1900-ies. They visited him at Aix, recorded conversations with him. They began to organize an exhibition of Cezanne, enjoyed increasing success. But the real fame came to him posthumously.