Alvar Aalto( Architect)
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Biography Alvar Aalto
Alvar Aalto was born in 1898 in Kuortane - a small town in central Finland. A rose in the village Alajцгrvi, where, while still a student at the Technological Institute in Helsinki, he built his first house for parents. In 1923, graduated from the institute, he became an architect.
In 1928, in Turku Aalto opened his own office. At the same time, he designed his first big housing estate for an agricultural cooperative, which includes offices, apartments and a theater of 600 seats.
. Then in the years 1928-1930 Aalto designed and built the building for the printing of the newspaper "Turunen-Sanomat in Turku
. This is the first major building wizard, which became known outside of Finland.
Soon the building tuberculous sanatorium in Paimio Aalto put forward in the front ranks of architects of our time. Typically, today named three public buildings, is inextricably linked with the progress of modern architecture: the Bauhaus in Dessau by Walter Gropius, the draft of the Palace of the League of Nations in Geneva, Le Corbusier and sanatorium in Paimio Alvar Aalto (1929-1933).
. In 1938, Alvar Aalto built a pavilion for agricultural and forestry exhibition in the village of Lapua in northern Finland
. Vertical division, as applied in this building, in a more subtle form occurs in the subsequent works of the master.
. One of the few buildings in which Aalto could, as an architect, freely express their individuality, was the city library building in Vyborg
. Built between 1927 and 1934, it was destroyed during the war. The building consists of a reading room with him with elaborately ceiling light fixtures and irregular shape with a large audience, connecting them to the lobby.
. In 1939, when Aalto was in America in connection with the construction of the Finnish pavilion at the World New York exhibition, the sculptor Brancusi told him about the work that he did for an Indian maharajah
. Suddenly, Aalto said: "Now I know who you are, Brancusi, You're standing at the crossroads between Asia and Europe". Aalto, also stood at the crossroads. Multi-layered nature of the Finnish culture - blending elements of Western civilization, remnants of prehistoric times and the Middle Ages - is reflected in the work of the architect, giving him the works of internal stress.
. Finnish pavilion was by far the most risky to plan architectural construction at the New York exhibition
. Inclined wooden lattice height of three stories in the form of arbitrarily delineated curve limited internal space of the pavilion. Grill consisted of three sections, each of which several appeared one above the other. At the same time, the whole structure was bent forward at a slight angle, which reinforces the impression of continuous motion
. Activities Aalto in Finland, also included a significant amount of design of industrial facilities - from a single plant to the device to the new place of entire industrial complexes in the postwar period.
. Aalto's approach to the planning of the city became clear already in his draft camp and factory in Sunila (1937-1939)
. In all subsequent projects Aalto, from the project pilot cities (1940), the center of the city Seinцгjoki (1960) and ending with the construction of a cultural center in Helsinki, reflect the same principles. In the postwar years, Aalto, using such traditional Finnish materials, such as brick, granite, red copper and wood, looking for new ways to use their properties. For decades, he remains faithful to one and the same methods of spatial composition: this is the half-open an intimate courtyard - an intermediate link between the interior and the external environment, around which the whole composition. Admission for the first time embodied in the building of the municipal center village Syaynatsalo (1950-1952). Then got in the development of major capital construction of the end of the fifties: House of Culture workers' organizations (1955-1958) and governance of pensions (1952-1957) in Helsinki. Transformed into the rhythm of diverse spaces and volumes, the system determines the composition of the main building of the Polytechnic Institute in Otaniemi (1963-1966), the largest works of the master.
. Best foreign project Aalto - sports and cultural center in Vienna (the competition in 1953), unfortunately, was not implemented
. In the hall on the twenty-five thousand seats provided for the curved and slanted coverage hanging wall of the main facade.
Considerable attention was given to Aalto's lighting in buildings. Light creates space, reveals plastic construction, is a powerful influence on emotions. A series of experiments with the "architecture of light" Aalto began when you first create the library in Vyborg. He continued them in the building of the Pension Management, the house Karre in Bazoshe (1959, France), Cultural Center in Wolfsburg (1962, Germany), Library of Rovaniemi (1967).
In early 1960 it seemed that the creativity Aalto moved into recession. Its built in Finland were not significant, and in the works, built at the borders of the country, appeared cold, contrived pretentiousness: high-rise building in Bremen (1963), Cultural Center in Wolfsburg (1959-1962). But the building of the Polytechnic Institute in Otaniemi, complex in the center of Rovaniemi and Seynayoki, completed by the end of the decade, not inferior to the best buildings of the past.
Aalto signed all his works "Aino and Alvar Aalto". This commonwealth was unusual, as well as everything related to Aalto. Aalto's relationship with his wife based on the commonality of views with students years. The secret of a long common view is that they complement each other. Aalto was a restless, extravagant man; Aino - a strong, persistent and silent. Aino died in 1949, but her name remains forever linked with the work of Alvar Aalto. He always put the name Aino in front of his, but she said that only the creator of Alwar. However, it is as an architect nenazoylivo, but candidly expressed their opinions about everything that dealt with the work and lifestyle Aalto.
. It seems that rare ability to Aalto creatively collaborate with a friend for life and career is eloquent testimony to the high spiritual qualities.
. Aalto died in 1976.