VILLANUEVA Carlos Raul( Architect)
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Biography VILLANUEVA Carlos Raul
Carlos Raц¦l Villanueva was born on May 30, 1900 in London, in a family of Peruvian diplomat and a French. His father was a highly educated man, a writer known for works on the history and culture of Latin America. Future architect educated in Paris, the LycцLe Condorcet and the architectural department of the Ecole de Beaux-Ar, which he graduated in 1928. The Faculty of his teacher was Gabrielle Herault.
Villanueva then moved to Caracas, where he opened her architectural studio, while working with the Ministry of Public Works. Diploma of the Paris School of Fine Arts opened on the tradition in Latin America the road to success and recognition.
Around the end of the Second World War in Venezuela dominated eclectic. Appeal to the "modern" forms at first also had the character stylization. The plan worked, and Villanueva, and in this way gained recognition. He knew the history of architecture and skilful use of knowledge in practice, moving into its built form of the past, mainly from the old Spanish and Latin American architecture. As an example is the arena for a bullfight (1931) in Maracay - round building large capacity, inside and outside the treated arkaturoy "Moorish" nature.
Other work of this period - Museum de Los Cabos in Caracas (1935) - is a representative composition on the basis of a warrant classics. In 1937 he built the Venezuelan Pavilion at the World Exhibition in Paris, the award-winning Grand Prix. Soon Villanueva was awarded the French Legion of Honor
. School "Great Colombia" (1939) in Caracas was the first attempt to test methods Villanueva "new architecture" - a combination of asymmetric volumes, tape the windows and rounded corners.
. The turning point in the work of Villanueva, and perhaps the entire architecture of Venezuela was the design and construction of the University campus in Caracas (from 1944 until the end of the fifties)
. Villanueva throughout the works was the author of this large, encompassing many diverse facilities of the complex. In 1944-1947 he was a drafted the first version of the master plan and began the first phase of construction.
. Once in 1945, was built the hospital, it became clear that creativity Villanueva is starting to change more seriously than it might have been expected on the layout of the University in general
Constructive and plastic concrete opportunities Villanueva feel about creativity when working on the sports center of University City (1950). He designed the Olympic sports arena (football stadium), with stands at thirty thousand spectators, and the next, separated avtoestakadoy high-speed motion - a baseball stadium with a similar capacity.
. The next step for Villanueva in the development of new designs and construction techniques, as well as the establishment of large urban complexes has been its involvement in housing, undertaken in early 1950 in Caracas
. Villanueva acted as the author of residential complexes: "El Paraiso" (1952-1954), "23 January" (1955). Later he was a consultant to create areas of Cherry Grande, Belyaviata etc.
Suggested Villanueva types of apartments, houses, planning districts raised the interest of architects in many countries. Residential areas of Caracas, built in 1950, differ by large scale urban development and witty use of features of industrial construction.
. After working on residential areas Villanueva returned to the ensemble of the university and designs buildings main auditorium (Aula Magna), the central library, administration, and administrative corps, concert hall, etc.
. Of the buildings of the university center has become best known Aula Magna - the main auditorium (1952), component in terms of range and overlap of twelve radiating frames
. Outside edges of the frames are raised above the roof, and on all the walls deduced rectangular grid of a massive reinforced concrete frame. Architectural volumes Villanueva adamantly strong, it forms visible weighty, "brutal". Yellow, with traces of shuttering the concrete surface reinforces this impression. Aula Magna looks like a giant armored turtle: it is as strong visually as a pyramid or the Colosseum.
Next time building Villanueva - Venezuelan Pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal. Its composition may seem quite surprising, but it is logical to continue the development of techniques characteristic of this author. Three equal deaf cube whose faces are painted separately in local contrasting colors, are connected in the middle of the entry hall.
Villanueva in his work has always sought to take into account the lessons of history and regional experiences. Historical continuity of the architect is widely understood. He said: "I believe in architecture, . emanating from temporary, . local, . human reality, . taking their own criteria while searching for their own forms, . keep coming back to reality in order to verify and refine its concept,
. Architecture is developed only as a constant controversy.
Villanueva died in Caracas on August 16, 1975.