BART Henry( Special Interests)
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Biography BART Henry
For six years has passed over the Sahara and Sudan, more than 20 thousand kilometers, collected geographical, ethnographic and linguistic materials. Bart was the first Europeans gathered oral tradition and opened for European science Tariq-es-Sudan - an invaluable chronicle of the XVII century, and many other manuscripts. The main work - "Travels and discoveries in North and Central Africa" (in 5 vols.), First published in 1855-1858, respectively.
Bart was the son of a peasant orphans, who later became the richest merchant in Hamburg. His father gave him a brilliant education. In 1844, the University of Berlin Bart was awarded the degree for his work on trade relations of the ancient Corinth. His father encouraged him for this trip to the Mediterranean countries. Bart used it for their first research. Then Bart try his hand as a privat-docent, but not succeeded. Lectures were clearly not his element.
In the late 1840's commercial interests in England have shown great interest in finding a convenient way to Sudan - a strip of steppes and savannahs of sub-Saharan. With the support of the British government decided to send to Sudan through the Sahara "mixed science-trading expedition". The chief of the expedition was appointed Richardson. In 1848 in London saw the publication of his two-volume monograph - "Travels in the Great Desert of Sahara in 1845-1846.". On the recommendation of the German geographer Ritter in the expedition entered Bart. Third member of the expedition became a doctor, a geologist and astronomer, Adolphe Oferveg.
In March 1850 members of the expedition from Tripoli headed for Murzuk. Despite the practical purpose of the expedition, its members have dominated the interest of scientific research and geographical discoveries. This determined its course and results. Already on the road from Tripoli to Murzuk travelers decided to move not known by, and through the desert Hamada el-Hamra. After a stop in Murzuke expedition turned west and reached Gata near the eastern tip of Ahaggar. Here Bart studied at n'Ajjer Tassili rock paintings of ancient inhabitants of the Sahara. Bart finds a lead of 100 years of rapid interest in the paleogeography Sahara.
From Gata they turned south and in October 1850 reached Agadez. From Agadez expedition headed south to the borders of the state Born. In January 1851 it was decided to go to the capital of Bornu Kukava (Cook) in the vicinity of Lake Chad, in different ways. Richardson went out Tadzheleta in Kukava, but died en route in March 1851 from tropical malaria. Oferveg chose the route from Zinder in the east - in the district of Maradi in southern Niger to conduct survey work, and Bart - in Kano, who once sought out Clapperton. Meet they assumed in Kukava.
Kano was a city of trade and crafts. At its markets selling blades made by masters Soninke, French silk, colored Venetian glass beads, as well as local cotton textiles and leather products.
Arriving from Kano Kukava, Bart began preparations for the expedition to Lake Chad. It was held in April, two months before the beginning of the rainy season. Therefore, attempts to find Bart space of open water were unsuccessful. In May 1851 in Kukava Oferveg arrived, exhausted and suffering from malaria.
Objectives of the expedition were largely fulfilled, but travelers embraced a passion for new research. They are sent to separate routes. Oferveg began exploring the shores of Lake Chad, the outlines of which were roughly mapped Denham in 1823.
Bart at the end of May 1851 to the south, the region of Adamawa. He visited a large shopping center Yolu, the city, which lies to the south-west of Chad and founded ten years before people Fulani. He believed that it is far from the influx of the Niger - Benue river. June 18 he stood on the bank of the River Benue. Investigation of Chad led to the conviction of Bart's inability to survey its coast, as well as the outlines of the lake are changing every month ... ". Then, Bart returned to Bourne, where he joined with Ofervegom.
In September - October 1851, they investigated the area of Kanem. In March - August 1852 Bart Baguirmi visited the country in the lower reaches of the Chari. He was able to penetrate only up to Masenov. Prevented further advancement of captivity, fortunately short-term, during which Bart coached his patience, studying notes Mungo Park. Oferveg began to study the south-western parts of Bornu, and then returned to the shores of Chad. There, in September 1852 took the life of tropical malaria, and that the expedition members. His efforts were later appreciated: in those cases when determining the location of localities participated Oferveg, the coordinates were identified correctly.
By the results of Saharan research expedition added new information about the interior of Africa. Mysteries of Chad have largely been resolved. This lake is only receiving waters of rivers flowing into it on the west and south. Neither the river does not flow from Chad. "Nomadic shore" (an expression Bart) were due to feeding habits of the lake and the regime of rivers flowing into it. It was discovered upstream overflowing river Benue, collected a wide variety of materials about the nature and population of the region, located south of the central Sahara in yet unknown to Europeans of Africa. He heard about Kubande River, which flows from east to west, far south of Sudan. River called. This name Europeans first learned of the largest right tributary of the Congo - Oubangui.
Bart continued study of the Sudan. In late 1852 he decided to go out Kukava west to Timbuktu and explore the middle reaches of the Niger basin. By Ofervega he reached Zinder. From Zinder he walked through Katsina and Sokoto to the left in the summer of 1853 to just south of latitude Niger Niamey. Crossed the river and continuing to move in a northwesterly direction, Bart was the first Europeans crossed the interior of the loop of the Niger ". In September 1853 he became the third European researchers after Lang and Kaye, has reached legendary Timbuktu.
. The former "queen of the desert" looked exactly as it described the Cahiers: a lively trading town, but from the old artisan shops, schools and palaces no trace
. After nearly eight months in Timbuktu, in April 1854 he went way back. This time he walked along the Niger and mapped a large area of its middle reaches, and personally convinced of its navigability. In Kano, Bart returned to Kukava, crossed the Sahara from south to north, and came to Tripoli in August 1855, again passing through the central Sahara, but this time from south to north.
In September 1855, after six years spent in wanderings in Africa, Bart returned to London. He engaged in the processing and systematization of the materials collected in 1857-1858 years released five volumes, entitled "Travels and discoveries in North and Central Africa in 1849-1855 gg.". Reports, reports and publications Bart emphasized real opportunities for Europeans to reach remote areas of the North-West and West Africa, particularly the fertile lands of the Niger Basin.
. Bart died in 1865, but it happened during his lifetime to read his obituary, published on the eve of his return to Europe, where the rumor about his death
The fate of Bart Vogel was asked to clarify and to further the cause of his expedition, undertook a study of ways between the West and East Sudan. In November 1854 Vogel was already near Kano, when suddenly met Bart, returning from Timbuktu to Kukava.
The search for Bart have led to another result-a scientific point of expedition penetrated into the interior of West Africa. In 1853, of the Niger Delta up the river on board the "galaxy of" was sent to "science-trading expedition, under the command of Captain William Balfour Beiko. This expedition was supposed to connect with Bart, passing into the interior of Africa from the Atlantic to the Sudan by boat on the Niger and Benue. The expedition reached on these rivers almost Ioly, . and thus was proved relatively simple to move from the Atlantic coast in those deep parts of West Africa, . where the hard-reached Bart, . moving through the desert to the north.,