Charskii Lidia( Writer)
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Biography Charskii Lidia
Once the reading among the youth there was no man, not familiar with this name. Her tales for toddlers, children's stories, novels for young readers, novels for adults, poems and plays instantly disappeared from store shelves. She was the most popular children's writer, beginning of XX century. And nobody could say where suddenly appeared as a significant phenomenon in the literary world.
Lidia was born in a noble family. Her father, Alexey Voronov, a military engineer. Until now debatable date of her birth. According to some sources, this is 1878, St. Petersburg, on the other - 1875, Caucasus. But be that as it may, in the 70 years of XIX century was born a girl, which was destined for more than 20 years to possess the minds and feelings of the widest range of readers.
. The family lived in abundance, the parents loved their daughter, and everything seemed to be happy and serene
. But not under a lucky star was born a little Lida. Soon after her mother had died. And all my love girl suffered at his father. Perhaps it helped them both to move a heavy loss. It went from a life not only the mother but also his wife. Together they spent wonderful evenings. And Lida felt that this will always.
But one day everything changed. Father married. In the house came a strange woman. Stepmother. What a cold and heartless word! And how cold and forlorn was in the shower girl. Relations with the new mistress of the house so did not work out that Lida repeatedly ran away from home. It was then decided to take her daughter to St. Petersburg to Pavlovsk Women's Institute. At that time the family lived in Schlusselburg, this required the military service of his father. Road Lida did not remember, but in the memory forever left painful memories from the first meeting with the situation of the Institute, who lived under strict, once and for all the established rules. To impressionable children living institution seemed barracks, a prison, where she was to live now.
Dissimilarity with other children her age manifested itself quite early. At 10 years she wrote poetry, and in 15 years, has a habit of keeping a diary, recording some of which have survived. By this time she was conscious of its difference from others, and suffered this. "Why do I worry about all the sharper and more painful than others and why there are no other such strange dreams, which come with me?" Why others live, not knowing the terrible riots that worry me? " - She wrote in her diary.
. Over the years, Lydia has learned to control himself, became calmer and more seasoned
. After boarding in the family did not return, although his father to understand and forgive him for a secondary marriage. Temperamental, charming, gray-eyed girl attracted the attention of. A brilliant officer Boris Churilov was fascinated by it. He made Lidia proposal, and the girl agreed to marry him. Thus began an eighteen Voronova Churilova. But here it was unlucky. The marriage was short-lived, the officer went on duty in Siberia, and a young woman with a tiny baby in her arms was left alone. What could I do? To leave his father and stepmother? Live in the family established in her rules? Material depend on the father? No, it was not on it. She chose a different path.
Stay in St. Petersburg, came to the dramatic course at the Imperial Theater School. Striking appearance, impulsiveness, temperament made her visible on the course. Even the entrance exams teachers noticed the girl that helped her survive the competition. After graduating from college Lidia defined in Aleksandrinsky Imperial Theater, which served for (as it was then called) from 1898 to 1924. It was there, on the scenic stage, was born the nickname "Charskaya". What meaning is attached to this resounding Lidia, we do not know. But we can assume that it was born, by analogy with the words "spell", "charm", "sorcery". Who knew the actress Chara? But almost nobody, because the role of her battered secondary, episodic, the salary was too low.
Famous Char she became a completely different. Literature. The impetus for literary work was the tightness in the media. After her son grew up, and help was nowhere to wait. And then she tried to write his first work. Lesson literature, to the surprise of Lidia, was easy and pleasant. And she gave herself to him entirely, but continued to work in the theater.
His first story "Zapiski schoolgirl", written in 1902, brought her loud glory. While in St. Petersburg a magazine "heartfelt word" for children younger and older. Charskaya became the leading writer of the journal. Because of her pen works out one after another. Like, dozing in her fontanel fed by external waters, becoming, in a wide turbulent river, broke through all the dams on their way. After 20 years of literary activity Charskaya wrote about 80 works! Her fame has reached the European countries. Translated into German, English, French, Czech, she went to every house, every family, where children grow. Young people were read her works, enthusiastically meeting the new books. Tale "Princess Dzhavaha", . "Luda Vlassovskaya", . "The second Nina", . "Notes of a little schoolgirl", . "Sibirochka", . "Lesovichka", . stories "Wolken", . "First Day", . Two Christmas Eve ", . "Proof-Varkunina", . tale "The Golden sackbut", . "Fairytale" and others - this is an incomplete list of, . that avidly read the new generation to the beginning of XX century.,
. What she wrote? On kindness, love of neighbor, compassion, dedication, responsiveness
. Her characters - people of different classes. This gentlemen, teaching their children in privileged schools, and employees who live on the remuneration for their labor, and the poor who dream of a crust of bread. But they are united in humanity, the desire to respond to the pain of others, unselfishness - those human qualities, the lack of which is particularly strongly felt in our time.
Charskaya well versed in child psychology, catch hot issues, built their works in accordance with the Children and Young People's logic, to respond quickly to current events. It is in this that its popularity. Her love, her written responses, her adored. Charskaya received large fees, she paid not only publishers, but the military authorities, was approved even her scholarship. But fate in the form of the 1917 revolution has made the life of Chara their brutal adjustments.
Even in 1912, KI. Chukovskij denounced her work, calling the writer "the genius of vulgarity". And in 1917, with the advent of Soviet power it ceased to publish, not forgiving to the writer of noble origin and the bourgeois-philistine views. (The fact that a woman from his earliest years living on the employment earnings had been forgotten.) From 1925 to 1929 with great difficulty she managed to publish 4 small books for children under the pseudonym N. Ivanova. Her works were removed from libraries and destroyed.
There was no more love to do, have disappeared from grateful readers. Life stopped at full speed. But the tests were not over. Original failure and futility of life she felt when the news of the death of her son Yuri, who fought in the Red Army. Lonely, already middle-aged woman, abandoned by all, not having by that time no relatives in 1924, she left the theater. Began literally miserable life. And then it was KI. Chukovskij procured her a pension.
She went quietly. But left behind is still no one to solve the mystery. The official place of her burial is considered the Smolensk Cemetery in St. Petersburg, but some witnesses say they saw her name on the tombstone in the village Chkalovsky Krasnodar Territory.
. On Chara remembered in 90 years of XX century
. It took nearly a century, so we again discovered her creativity. The good news is that different publishers have taken the trouble to revive her works. Among them are known to all Publishers Children's Books, which printed the story in 1991, Chara "Sibirochka". In the same year were published in the publishing house "House" "Notes of a little schoolgirl" and in 1994 the Moscow publishing house "Press" published a collection of stories, the writer called "Fairytale". Certainly, the book Chara find their readers will love its small and young citizens of Russia XXI century, as they had once loved her children the past century. This is their story will grab the "Notes of a little schoolgirl", . and already they blush with shame at the deed Dinochki of the story "Two Christmas Eve", . our children breathe a sigh of relief, . reading about the happy end of the little orphans wandering in the story "Malia", . it will happen to them talk about kindness and sensitivity, . about humanity and gratitude to a great Russian writer Lydia Charskaya.,