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( The leader of the highlanders)

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Biography Shamil
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Shamil - the famous leader and unifying the mountaineers of Dagestan and Chechnya in their struggle for independence with Russian. Gifted with brilliant natural ability, he listened to the best teachers in Dagestan, grammar, logic and rhetoric of the Arabic language and soon became regarded as an outstanding scientist. Sermons Qazi, Mullah (or rather, Ghazi Mohammed), the first preacher gazavat - holy war against the Russian, dragged S., who became first his pupil and then friend and ardent supporter.

. Followers of the new doctrine, seeking salvation and cleansing from sin by a holy war for the faith against the Russian, called murids
. When the people were quite excited nafanatizirovan and descriptions of paradise, . his guriyami, . and the promise of full independence from any government was, . except Allah and his sharia (law of spiritual, . contained in the Koran), . Qazi, Mullah during 1827 - 1829 he,
. managed to win over the Koysubu, Gumbet, Andiyu etc.. small society of Avar and Andean Koisu, most shamhalstva Tarkovsky, Kumyk and accidents, except for its capital Hunzaha, visited Avar khans. Hoping that his power will only be durable in Dagestan, where he finally mastered the accident, the center of Dagestan, and its capital Hunzahom, Qazi, Mullah gathered 6000 people and 4 February 1830. went with them against the groin Hanshi-BIKE. February 12, 1830, Mr.. He moved to assault Hunzaha, with one half of the militia commanded Gamzat Bek, his future successor, the Imam, and the other - Sh, the future 3rd Imam of Dagestan. The assault was unsuccessful; W. with Qazi, Mullah returned to Nimr.

While accompanying his teacher in his campaigns, W. in 1832. was besieged by Russian, under the command of Baron Rosen, in Gimrah. SH. managed, though terribly wounded, break and escape, while Qazi mullah was killed, all stabbed repeatedly with bayonets. The death of the last, a wound received during the siege, Shamil Gimr, and the rule Gamzat-bek, who declared himself the successor of Gazi-the mullahs and the Imam - everything is kept W. the background to death Gamzat-bek (7 or Sept. 19, 1834), Chief of which he was gathering troops, getting the material means and commanded expeditions against the Russian and the enemies of Imam.

Upon learning of his death, W. gathered the most daring party murids, threw them in New Gotsatl, seized there Gamzat looted wealth and told to kill surviving younger son pair-BIKE, the sole heir to the Avar Khanate. This assassination W. finally removed the last obstacle to the spread of power Imam, as the khans of the accident were interested in that, in Dagestan, there was no single strong authority, and therefore acted in alliance with the Russian against Qazi mullahs and Gamzat-bek. 25 W. dominated over the mountaineers of Dagestan and Chechnya, successfully fighting against the huge forces of Russia.

Less religious than the Kazi-Mulla, less hasty and reckless than Gamzat Bek, W. possessed military talent, great organizational skills, tenacity, perseverance, ability to choose the time to strike and assistants to perform their's purposes. Distinguished by a firm and indomitable will, he was able to inspire the Highlanders, was able to bring them to sacrifice and obedience to authority, that was for them a particularly difficult and unusual. Surpassing its predecessor mind, he, like them, could not make out the means to achieve their goals. Fear for the future of the Avars made friends with Russian: Avar Sergeant Khalil-bey was in Temir-Khan-Shura, and asked Colonel Kluki von Klyugenau appoint an accident legitimate ruler, that it does not fall into the hands murids. Klyugenau moved to Gotsatlyu. S., staging piles on the left bank of the Avar Koisu, intended to operate in the Russian flank and rear, but Klyugenau managed to cross the river, and W. had to retreat inside Dagestan, where at this time there were hostile collision between the contenders for power.

Regulation Z. in these first years were very difficult: a number of defeats, . incurred mountaineers, . shook their commitment to jihad and faith in the triumph of Islam over giaours, one after the other voluntary society unwilling submission and issue the hostages, fearing the ruin of Russian, . Mountain auly reluctantly hosted murids,
. All 1835 W. worked in secret, gathering followers, fanatiziruya crowd and pushing rivals or tolerating them. Russian gave it to worsen, as looked at him as a worthless adventurer. SH. bruit that works only on the restoration of Islamic purity law between the unruly societies of Dagestan and expressed willingness to submit to the Russian government with all Koiso-bulintsami if he would be assigned to specific content. Euthanized so Russian, . which at this time in particular took up the construction of fortifications on the Black Sea, . to cut off the Circassians opportunity to communicate with the Turks, . Sh, . with the assistance of Tasha-haji, . tried to raise the Chechens and assure them, . that most of Nagorno Dagestan has adopted Sharia, and yielded to the imam.,

. In April 1836, Mr.
. S., with a party of 2 thousand people, admonitions and threats forced Koiso-bulintsev and other neighboring societies to take his teachings and to the recognition of his imam. Commander of the Caucasian Corps Baron Rosen, wanting to undermine the growing influence of Sh, in July 1836, sent by Major-General Reut take Untsukul and, if possible, Ashiltu, residence W. After taking Irganay, Major-General Reut was greeted with resignation statements by Untsukulya, elders who explained that adopted Sharia law only yielding to the power W. Reut has not gone after that to Untsukul and returned to the Temir-Khan-Shura, and W. was everywhere spread rumors that the Russian afraid to go deep into the mountains and then, using our inaction, he continued to subordinate its authority Avar village. To acquire more influence among the population Accidents W. married the widow of the former Imam Gamzat-bek, and at the end of this year achieved what every free society Dagestan from Chechnya before the accident, as well as much of the Avars and societies that lie south of the accidents, acknowledged his authority.

. Early 1837
. Corps Commander, Major-General instructed the hostel to take a few expeditions to various parts of Chechnya, which was done with success, but made a negligible impression on the mountain. Continuous attacks W. Avar village of forced manager Avar Khanate Ahmed Khan Mehtulinskogo offer Russian capital to take Khanate Khunzakh. May 28, 1837, Mr.. General hostel came into Hunza and after that moved to the village Ashilte, near which, on an inaccessible cliff Ahulga, were family and all the property of Imam. Sam C., with a large party, was in the village Talitle and tried to divert our attention from Ashilty, attacking us from all sides. Against him was put up a detachment under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Buchkieva. SH. tried to break through this barrier and into the night from 7 to 8 June Buchkieva attacked the detachment, but after a heated battle was forced to retreat. June 9 Ashilta was taken by assault and burned after a desperate battle with the 2 thousand picked fanatics murids who defended every cottage, every street, and then rushed six times for our troops to recapture Ashiltu, but in vain. June 12 was taken by storm and Ahulgo. July 5, General hostel moved his forces to attack Tilitla; repeated all the terrors ashiltipskogo pogrom, when one is not requested, while others did not give mercy. SH. saw that the case was lost, and sent a truce with an expression of obedience.

General hostel was given to deceit and entered into negotiations, then W. and his comrades gave three hostages (hostages), including the nephew of Sh, and swore allegiance to the Russian Emperor. Miss the chance to take W. captured, the general hostel tightened war for 22 years, and concluding with the world as an equal party, raised its value in the eyes of Dagestan and Chechnya. Regulation Z. Nevertheless, it was very difficult: on the one hand, . Highlanders were shocked by the appearance of Russian in the heart of the most inaccessible parts of Dagestan, . on the other - pogrom, . produced Russian, . death of many brave murids and loss of property undermine their power and for a time killed their energy,
. Soon the circumstances have changed. Unrest in the Kuban region and in southern Dagestan, had diverted most of our troops in the south, resulting in Z. could recover from the blows inflicted upon him, and again to win over some of the Free Society, acting on them is the conviction that force (the end of 1838, Mr.. and the beginning of 1839). Near the destroyed in Avar expedition Ahulgo he built a new Ahulgo where and moved his residence from Chirkata. In view of the connectivity of all the mountaineers of Dagestan under the authority of S., we are in the winter 1838 - 39 years preparing the troops, baggage and supplies for the expedition into the interior of Dagestan. It was necessary to restore the free communication of all our means of communication, which now W. threatened to such an extent that to protect our transports between the Temir-Khan-Shura, Hunzahom and sudden rise to appoint a strong column of all arms.

For action against W. appointed so-called Chechen detachment of the Adjutant General Grabbe. S., for its part, in February 1839, Mr.. collected in Chirkate armed people in 5000 people, . strongly fortified village on the way from Arguani Salatavii in Ahulgo, . down the slope with a steep mountain Souk-Bulah, . and to divert our attention fell on May 4 at the humble village Irganay us and led its inhabitants to the mountains,
. At the same time loyal to Shamil Tasha-Hadji has conquered village bowl on the Aksai River and next to it in the tract Ahmed Tala built capacity, . from which he could at any moment to attack Sunzhenskij line or on the plane Kumyk, . and then hit us in the rear, . when we go into the mountains while driving on Ahulgo,
. Adjutant-General Grabbe understand this plan and the sudden attack took and burned near the strengthening of the Miskito, destroyed and burnt several villages in Chechnya stormed Sayasani, a stronghold of Haji-Tash, and May 15, returned in a sudden. May 21, he again spoke out. Near the village Burtunaya W. took the position on the flank of towering heights, but the Russian outflanking movement forced him to leave in Chirkat, militia as it sold out in all directions. Developing the road to the steepness of the puzzling, Grabbe up on pass Souk-Bulah and May 30, went to Arguani, where he sat down W. with 16 thousand people to delay the movement of Russian. After a desperate hand combat for 12 hours, in which the Highlanders and the Russian suffered a huge loss (highlanders have up to 2 thousand people, we have 641 people), he left the aul (June 1) and fled to New Ahulgo where locked with the most loyal to him murids. After taking Chirkat (5 June), General Grabbe June 12 approached Ahulgo. Ten weeks of continued blockade Ahulgo; W. communicate freely with the surrounding societies, again took Chirkat and stood on our communications, bothering us with the two sides, from everywhere flocked to him reinforcements Russian gradually covered by a ring of mountain debris. Assistance from samurskogo detachment, General Golovin has withdrawn them from this difficulty and allowed to close around New Ahulgo ring our batteries.

Anticipating the fall of their stronghold, W. tried to enter into negotiations with General Grabbe, demanding free passage of Ahulgo, but was refused. Aug. 17 attack occurred, during which W. again tried to enter into negotiations, but without success: August 21 attack was resumed and after 2-day battle, both Ahulgo were taken, with most of the defenders died. Sam W. managed to escape, the road was wounded and escaped through Salatau in Chechnya, where he settled in the Argun Gorge. The impression of the pogrom was very strong, many societies have sent atamans and expressed their obedience; former associates Sh, . including Tasha-Hajj, . Imam conceived usurp power and recruited followers, . but mistaken in their calculations: from the ashes like a phoenix reborn Z,
. and already in 1840, Mr.. again began to struggle with the Russian in Chechnya, taking advantage of discontent against the highlanders of our bailiffs and against attempts to take away their weapons. General Grabbe thought W. harmless runaway and did not care about his pursuit than that and took advantage, gradually returning lost influence.

Dissatisfaction Chechens W. stepped nimbly which was started hearing that the Russian plan to draw the Highlanders to the peasants and bring to serving the compulsory military service; Highlanders upset and talked about Sh, opposing justice and wisdom of his decisions of the Russian Bailiffs. Chechens offered him to become the head of the insurrection, he agreed to it only after repeated requests, taking with them an oath and hostages from the best families. He ordered all Low Chechnya and prisunzhenskie auly steel arm. SH. We constantly harassed by raids of large and small parties, . which so quickly transferred from place to place, . avoiding open combat with our troops, . that the latter completely exhausted, . chasing them, . and Imam, . Using this, . attacking left without the protection of society obedient to us, . subject them to his power, and moved to the mountains,

By the end of May, W. gathered a considerable militia. Low Chechnya all empty, its population to flee their homes, the rich earth, and hid in the dense forests of Sunzha and in the Black Mountains. General Galafeev moved (July 6, 1840) in Little Chechnya, . had several heated confrontations, . incidentally, . July 11 at River Valerik (in this battle involved Lermontov, . who described it in a wonderful poem), . but, . despite huge losses, . especially when Valerik, . Chechens are not backed by W,
. and willingly acted in his militia, which he now sent to the Northern Dagestan. Win over gumbetovtsev, andiytsev and salatavtsev and holding the outputs of a rich Shamhalskuyu plain, W. collected from Cherkeya militia in the 10 - 12 thousand people against 700 people of Russian troops. Stumbling against a major-general von Kluki Klyugenau, 9 thousandth militia W. after sustained battles 10 and 11 July waived further movement, returned to the flapping their part, and then was dissolved W. home: he waited for a broader movement in Dagestan. Dodging the battle, collect the militia and excited Highlanders rumors that Russian mountaineers and taken away on horseback will be sent to serve in Warsaw. September 14, General von Kluki Klyugenau could cause W. to fight under Gimrami: he was routed and fled accident and Koysubu were saved from plunder and devastation.

Despite this defeat, the power W. has not been shaken in Chechnya, he obeyed all the tribes between the Sunzha and Avar Koisu, vowing not to enter into any relations with the Russian, a betrayal of Russia Hadji Murad turned to his side (November 1840) and moved Avaria. SH. settled in the village of Dargo (in Ichkeria, when the upper river Aksai) and undertook a series of offensive operations. Horse Party naib Akhverdiev-magician appeared on Sept. 29, 1840, Mr.. under Mozdok and took some people captive, including the family of an Armenian merchant Uluhanova, whose daughter, Anna, became the beloved wife of Sh, under the name Shuanet.

By the end of 1840, Mr.. SH. was so strong that the commander of the Caucasian Corps, General Golovin found it necessary to engage in intercourse with him, causing him to reconcile with the Russian. This further raised the importance of Imam among the highlanders. During the winter of 1840 - 1841 period Circassian and Chechen gang broke through for the Sulak and penetrated even to Tarkov, cattle raiding and pillaging under the most Thermo-Khan-Shura, the message with the line which became possible only with a strong convoy. SH. ruined the villages, trying to resist his power, taking with him to the mountains of wives and children and forced the Chechens to extradite their daughters to marry Lezgins and vice versa, so that kinship bind the tribes together. It was especially important for W. acquisition of such staff as Hadji Murad, attracted to him accident Kibit-magician in southern Dagestan, a very influential among the mountaineers, a fanatic, brave and capable of self-taught engineer, and jam-al-Din, a prominent preacher.

By April 1841, Mr.. SH. commanded nearly all the tribes of Nagorno Dagestan, except Koysubu. Knowing how important it is for the Russian occupation Cherkeya, he consolidated all the way there, the rubble and he defended them with extraordinary tenacity, but after bypassing their Russian from both flanks retreated into the depths of Dagestan. May 15 Cherkov surrendered to General hostel. Seeing that the Russian took up the construction of fortifications and left him alone, W. planned to seize Andalyalom, with unassailable Gunib, where he hoped to arrange his residence, if the Russian pushed him out of Dargo. Andalyal was important by the fact that its inhabitants did gunpowder. In September 1841, Mr.. andalyaltsy entered into relations with the imam, in our hands there were only a few small villages. In early winter W. flooded Dagestan their gangs and cut us a message with the conquered societies and our fortifications. General von Kluki Klyugenau asked the corps commander sending reinforcements, but the latter, assuming that W. winter will cease operations, postponed the case until spring. Meanwhile W. not idle, and the intense preparations for the campaign next year, not letting our weary troops no rest. Glory W. reached the Ossetians and Circassians, who had pinned great hopes on it. General hostel stormed Gergebil. March 2 Choh won without a fight and 7 March, arrived in Hunza. At the end of May 1842, Mr.. SH. entered with 15 thousand in the militiamen Kazikumuh, but broken on June 2 at Kyulyuli Prince Argutinsky-Dolgoruky quickly cleared Kazikumuhskoe Khanate, probably because he had received news of the motion of a large detachment of General Grabbe at Dargo. Past 3 days (30 and 31 May and 1 June), only 22 miles and losing vybyvshimi down about 1800 people, General Grabbe came back without having done anything.

That failure was remarkably raised the spirit of the mountaineers. On our side, a number of fortifications on the Sunzha, hampered Chechens attack on the village on the left bank of the river, was supplemented by a device for strengthening the sulfur-tent (1842), and the construction of fortifications on the river Asse launched the Chechen front lines. All spring and summer 1843. SH. traded on the organization of his army, when the Highlanders were removed bread, he went on the offensive. August 27, 1843, making the transition to 70 miles, W. suddenly appeared in front of Untsukulskim strengthening, . with 10 thousand people, to help strengthen the colonel was Veselitsky, . with 500, . but, . surrounded by the enemy, . died with all the troops, on August 31 Untsukul was taken, . razed to the ground, . many of its inhabitants executed; of the Russian garrison had been taken prisoner by survivors of 2 officers and 58 soldiers,

Then W. turned against accidents, where, in Hunzahe, sat down general Kluki von Klyugenau. Hardly W. joined Avaria, . as one village after another has to surrender to him, despite the desperate defense of our garrisons, . he managed to take the strengthening Belahany (September 3), . Maksohskuyu tower (5 September), . strengthening Tsatanyh (6 - 8 September), . Ahalchi and Gotsatl, seeing it, . Accident rebelled against us and the people Hunzaha withheld from adultery only by the presence of troops,
. Such achievements were possible only because our forces were scattered over a large space, small detachments, which were placed in small and poorly arranged entrenchments. SH. Khunzakh no hurry to attack, fearing a failure to destroy purchased victories. Throughout this campaign W. showed talent outstanding general. Predvoditelstvuya crowds of mountaineers who are not familiar yet with discipline, self-willed and easily lose heart at the slightest failure, he succeeded in a short time to subordinate them to his will, and to instill a willingness to take the most difficult enterprise. After an unsuccessful attack on the fortified village Andreevka, W, . which was poorly fortified, . and yet had great significance, . protecting the access of Northern Dagestan in southern, . and the tower Chipmunk-Calais, . occupied by only a few soldiers, . while it protects you from the plane accidents,
. October 28, 1843, Mr.. crowd Highlanders, . number to 10 thousand, . surrounded Gergebil, . garrison, 306 Tiflis Regiment, . under the command of Major Shaganova (see), and after a desperate defense fortress was taken, . almost the entire garrison was killed, . Only a few were captured (November 8),
. Fall Gergebil was the signal for an uprising Koiso-Bulinskaya villages along the right bank of the Avar Koisu, therefore, our troops cleared Avaria. Temir-Khan-Shura, was now completely isolated, not daring to attack her, W. decided to starve her hunger, and fell on strengthening the grassroots, where there was a warehouse of food supplies. Despite the desperate attacks of 6000 Highlanders, the garrison withstood all attacks against them and was relieved by General Freygatom who burned stores, rivet guns and took the garrison in the Gazi-Yurt (17 November 1843). The hostile mood of the population made clear Miatly Russian blockhouse, then Khunzakh, garrison, under the command of Passek, moved to Zirani, where he was besieged by mountaineers. The aid Passek moved general Gurko and December 17 rescued him from the siege. By the end of 1843. SH. was a complete master of Dagestan and Chechnya, we had to begin their conquest of the case from the beginning.

Up the organization subject to him lands, W. divided into 8 naibstv Chechnya and then thousands, pyatisotni, hundreds and tens. On duty naib lay orders for an invasion of small parties in our limits and monitor all the movements of Russian troops. Substantial reinforcements received by Russian in 1844, gave them the opportunity to take and destroy Cherkov and drive Z. with an impregnable position at Burtunaya (June 1844). August 22 was started us building on the river Argun Vozdvizhenskoe building, the future center of the Chechen line; Highlanders vainly tried to prevent the construction of fortresses, lost heart and stopped showing. Daniel-Bek, Sultan of Alice, passed at this time on S. side, but the General Schwartz took Elisuyskoe sultanate, and betrayal of the Sultan did not bring Shamil the benefits to which he hoped.

Power W. was still very strong in Dagestan, especially in the South and along the left bank Sulaka and Avar Koisu. He understood, . that his main support is the lowest class of people, . and therefore tried every means to tie him to her: to this end he established a post murtazekov, . of the poor and homeless people, . that, . received from him the power and importance, . been a blind instrument in his hands, and strictly observed the execution of its orders,
. In February 1845. SH. took shopping aul Choh and forced into submission the neighboring village. Emperor Nicholas I ordered the new governor, Count Vorontsov, to take residence Sh, Dargo, but rebelled against it all authoritative Caucasian military generals, as against the futile expedition. The expedition, launched 31 May 1845, took Dargo, abandoned and burned Sh, and returned on July 20, losing 3631 men without the slightest benefit. SH. surrounded us during this expedition, such a mass of his troops, . that every inch of the way we were supposed to win it with blood, all roads were spoiled, . dug and blocked dozens of rubble and spotted, all the villages had to be taken by storm, or they get us destroyed and burned,

Russian Darginskaya expedition was carried out of the belief that the path to domination in Dagestan, Chechnya is over and that act is no raids, and prorubaniem roads in the forests, the grounds of castles and places of employment population of Russian immigrants. This was initiated in the same 1845. In order to distract attention from the events in Dagestan, W. concern to us at various points on lezghian line, but the development and strengthening of the Military Ahtynskoy road and there gradually restricted his field of action, bringing together samursky detachment with Lezgin. With a view to regain Dargin District, W. moved his capital to Vedeno in Ichkeria.

In October 1846, taking a strong position in the village Kuteshi, W. intended to lure our troops under the command of Prince Bebutov, in this narrow canyon, surrounded them here, cut off from all communication with our other units and split or starved to death. Our troops unexpectedly, at night on October 15, attacked the W. and, despite the stubborn and desperate defense, broke it to pieces: he fled, leaving behind many icons, one cannon and 21 of the caisson. In spring 1847, Mr.. Russian siege Gergebil, but protected desperate murids, elaborately fortified, he beat them off, supported by the time W. (1 - June 8, 1847).

The outbreak of cholera in the mountains has forced both parties to suspend hostilities. July 25, Prince Vorontsov pulled strongly fortified and equipped with a large garrison aul Salt; W. sent to the rescue of the besieged his best naib (Hadji Murad Kibit-Magomu and Daniel-bek), but a sudden attack of our troops, they were defeated and fled with great loss (7 August). SH. tried many times to file a help Salta, but without success; September 14 the fortress was captured by the Russian. Construction of the fortified headquarters in the Giro-yurt, . Ishkartah and Deshlagore, . guarding the plain between the river Sulakov, . Caspian Sea and Derbent, . and device fortifications at Khajeli-Mahi and Tsudahare, . ushered in the line Kazikumyhskomu-Koisu, . Russian is very constricted movement Sh, . made it difficult for him to break into the plain and locked the principal took an average of Dagestan,
. To this was joined dissatisfaction of the people who, starving, complain that due to constant war can not sow fields and to procure food for their families for the winter; nabobs quarreled among themselves, accusing each other and reach the denunciations.

In January 1848. SH. gathered in Vedeno nabobs, the principal chiefs and clerics, and announced to them that, seeing no help from the people in their enterprises and zeal for military actions against Russian, he relinquishes the title of imam. Meeting announced, . that it will not allow this, . because the mountains there is no man, . more worthy to wear the title of Imam, the people are not only willing to submit to the requirements of C., . but enjoined obedience and his son, . which his father's death should pass the title of imam,
. July 16, 1848, Mr.. Gergebil was taken by Russian. SH. For its part, attacked the strengthening Akhty, protected by a total of 400 men under the command of Colonel Roth, and murids inspires the personal presence of the Imam, was not less than 12 thousand. Garrison defended heroically and was rescued by the arrival of Prince Argutinsky that crashed assemblage W. at Meskindzhi village on the banks of the river Samur. Lezghin line was raised by us in the southern foothills of the Caucasus, which we took away from the mountain pastures and forced many of them to surrender or to move into our territory. On the part of Chechnya, we have to push recalcitrant our society, cutting deep into the mountains of the Chechen front line consisting only from the building and Vozdvizhenskoe Achtoevskogo, with a gap between them at 42 miles. In late 1847 and early 1848 in the middle of the Little Chechnya was built fortification on the banks of the Urus-Martan between the above-mentioned fortifications, 15 miles from Vozdvizhenskoe and 27 miles from Achtoevskogo. This we took from the Chechens rich plain, the granary of the country. The population has fallen spirit, some have submitted to us and moved closer to our fortifications, others went further into the mountains. From the plane we Kumyk beleaguer Dagestan two parallel lines of fortifications. Winter 1848 - 1849 he. went smoothly.

In April 1849, Mr.. Hadji Murat made an unsuccessful attack on the Temir-Khan-Shura. In June, we came to Chohu and, finding him well fortified, led the siege on all the rules of engineering art, but, seeing the huge force assembled W. to repel our attack, Prince Argutinsky-Dolgorukov lift the siege. In the winter of 1849 - 1850 he. was cut through a vast clearing of building Vozdvizhenskoe in Shali clearing, . Home garner large part of Chechnya and Dagestan, Nagorno; to ensure there is no other way was cut through the road from the Kura strengthening through Kachkalykovsky ridge before descending to the valley Michiko,
. Low Chechnya in four summer expeditions was entirely covered by us.

The Chechens have been brought to despair, furious at Sh, do not hide their desire to get rid of his power and in 1850, Mr.. among the several thousand moved to our limits. Attempts W. and his naib penetrate our borders have not been successful: they ran out of mountain retreat, or even a complete defeat for them (the case of Major-General have SLEPTSOVA Tsoki-Yurt and Datyha, . Colonel Maydell and Baklanov Michiko on the river and in the land auhavtsev, . Colonel Kishinskaya on Kuteshinskih altitudes, etc.),
. In 1851, Mr.. policy of ousting the recalcitrant mountaineers with planes and valleys continued, the ring of fortifications narrowed the number of fortified settlements increased. Expedition of Major-General Kozlovsky in great Chechnya, has turned this place to Bass River, in the treeless plain. In January and February 1852,. Prince Baryatinsky performed in front of W. a number of daring expeditions into the interior of Chechnya. SH. pulled all its forces to the Grand Chechnya, where on the banks of rivers and Gonsaula Michiko joined the hot and hard battle with the prince and the colonel Baryatinsky Baklanov, but despite a huge superiority in power, was broken several times.

In 1852, Mr.. Sh, . to heat the Chechens and the blind zeal of their brilliant feat, . decided to punish the Chechen civilians, . lived near Grozny, . for their care to us, but his plans were discovered, . it covered from all sides and from the 2000 men in his militia, many fell near Grozny, . others drowned in the Sunzha (17 September 1852),
. Actions W. in Dagestan over the years included the sending parties, who attacked our troops and obedient to us mountaineers, but did not have much success. The hopelessness of the struggle has affected numerous migrations in our limits, and even betrayal nabobs, including Hadji Murad.

Big blow for W. In 1853, Mr.. was the seizure of our river valleys Michiko and its tributary Gonsoli, in which lived a very large and loyal to him Chechen population, feeding her bread not only themselves, but also Dagestan. He collected for the defense of the angle of about 8 thousand horsemen and about 12 thousand infantry and all the mountains have been reinforced by countless obstructions, . artfully arranged and folded, . all possible descents and ascents were spoiled to complete unfitness for the motion, but the rapid action of the prince Bariatinskii and General Baklanova led to the complete defeat of W,
. He was quiet for as long as our gap with Turkey did not have to give a start to all Muslims of the Caucasus. SH. spread the rumor that the Russian Caucasus, and then leave it, the imam, who stayed a full master, severely punish those who now do not pass on its side. August 10, 1853, Mr.. He spoke of Vedena on the way collected the militia in the 15 thousand people and 25 August, took the village of Old Zagatala, but a broken Orbeliani prince, who had only about 2 thousand troops went to the mountains.

Despite this setback, the population of the Caucasus, electrified mullahs, was ready to rise against the Russian, but the imam for some reason to delay the whole winter and spring, and only at the end of June 1854, Mr.. down in Kakheti. Penalties from the village Schild, he captured seven Tsinondalah General Chavchavadze and left, robbing several villages. October 3, 1854, Mr.. He again appeared before the aul Istisu, but the desperate defense of the villagers and the tiny garrison of the redoubt held him until the building of the Kura not hastened Baron Nikolai; troops W. were routed and fled to the nearest forest. During 1855 and 56 years W. a little active, but we were not able to do something decisive, as were busy east war.

With the appointment of Chief of Prince AI. Bariatinskii (1856), we started to vigorously move forward again, with rides and erecting fortifications. In December 1856. huge clearing cut through a great new place in Chechnya, the Chechens have ceased to obey naib and moved closer to us. On the River Bass in March 1857. was built Shali strengthen put forward almost to the foot of the Black Mountains, the last refuge of the rebellious Chechens, and offers the shortest path in Dagestan. General Evdokimov penetrated into the valley Argena, forests are cut down, burned villages, built a defensive tower and Argun strengthening and brought to the top of clearing Dargin-duk, of which close to the residence of Sh Vedena. Many villages to conquer the Russian. To keep in his obedience to at least part of Chechnya, W. cordoned off the remaining loyal auly their Dagestani trails and driving the inhabitants further into the mountains, but the Chechens have already lost faith in him and were looking only for an opportunity to get rid of his yoke.

In July 1858. General Evdokimov took Shatoi village and took all Shatoevskuyu plain, and another detachment penetrated into Dagestan from lezghian line. SH. was cut off from the Kakheti region, Russian steel on the mountain tops, where could at any moment to descend into Dagestan by Avar Koisu. The Chechens, oppressive despotism S., sought assistance from Russian, driven murids and overthrew the government, set W. Fall Chateau so impressed Sh, that he, having a lot of troops under arms, hurried away in Vedeno.

Agony power W. began with the end of 1858. Assuming the Russian foothold in the Chant freely-Argun, he has concentrated large forces on the other spring of Argun, Sharo-Argun, and demanded for population-arming Chechens and Dagestanis. His son, Qazi magician took the Bass River Gorge, but was forced out from there in November 1858. Aul Tauz, heavily fortified, was passed over us from the flanks. Our troops are not going as before, through dense forests, where W. was a complete master, and slowly moved forward, cutting down the forest, carrying out road, fortify.

To protect Vedena W. pulled about 6 - 7 thousand people. We went to the reference 8 February, climbing mountains and going down with them on the liquid and sticky mud, making per hour at 1 / 2 miles, with terrible effort. Favorite Naib Z. Talgik came over to our side, residents of nearby villages refused to obey the Imam, . so he instructed defense Vedena tavlintsam, . and Chechens led away from the Russian, . into the Ichkeria, . whence issued an order, . to residents of Chechnya have moved to the Big Mountain,
. The Chechens have not executed the order and came to our camp with complaints of Sh, with manifestations of obedience and for protection. General Evdokimov fulfilled their wish and to protect migrating to our limits has sent a detachment of the graph Nostitz River Hulhulau. To divert the enemy's forces from the commander of the Caspian Vedena of Dagestan, Baron Wrangel, began military operations against Ichkeria, where he sat now W. Coming next tranche to conduct, General Evdokimov 1 April 1859, Mr.. took it by storm and razed to the ground. A number of companies fell away from W. and over to our side. Sh, but still not lost hope, and appearing in Ichichale, collecting new militia. Our main detachment freely go ahead, . evading the enemy and strengthen the position, . which consequently abandoning to the enemy without fighting; encountered in the village, we obey the same without a fight, the residents had been told to always get along peacefully, . as soon learned all the mountaineers and even more likely to have moved away from C., . who retired in Andalyalo and stronger on the mountain Gunib,

22 July detachment Baron Wrangel came on the shore Avar Koisu, after which the Avars and other tribes have expressed their obedience Russian. July 28 to Baron Wrangel deputation from Kibit-mage, with the announcement that he delayed the tests and teacher C., Jemal-ed-Din, and one of the main preachers Muridism, Aslan. August 2, Daniel-bek passed Baron Wrangel his residence Iriba and aul Dusrek, and on August 7 he went to Prince Baryatinsky, was pardoned and returned to their former possessions, where he placement of calm and order among the societies to conquer the Russian. Reconciliation mood in a coverage of Dagestan, which in mid-August, Chief freely passed through the whole accident in one, accompanied by Avars and koysubulintsev until Gunib. Our troops surrounded Gunib from all sides; W. locked the door with a small force (400 men, counting and villagers).

Baron Wrangel, on behalf of the commander in chief proposed to Z. submit to the Emperor, which will allow him a free trip to Mecca, with the obligation to elect her to their place of residence; W. rejected this proposal. August 25 Apsherons climbed the steep slopes Gunib, perekololi desperately defended blockages murids and come to the most aul (8 miles from where they climbed the mountain), which by this time gathered and other troops. Shamil threatened immediate assault, he decided to surrender and was assigned to the commander in chief, who received him kindly, and sent, together with his family in Russia.
. After the reception in St. Petersburg by the Emperor he was assigned to reside in Kaluga, where he remained until 1870, with a short stay at the end of this time in Kiev in 1870
. He was released to live in Mecca, where he died in March 1871, Mr..

Combining under his rule all societies and tribes of Chechnya and Dagestan, W. was not only the imam, the spiritual head of his followers, but also the political ruler. Based on the teachings of Islam for the soul at war with the infidels, trying to unite disparate peoples of the Eastern Caucasus on the basis mohammedanstva, W. would subject them to the clergy, as the recognized authority in the affairs of heaven and earth. To achieve this goal, he sought the abolition of all authority, the rules and institutions based on the age-old customs, at Adat; the basis of life Highlanders, both private and public, he believed the sharia, t. e. that part of the Koran, which set out the civil and criminal orders. Consequently, the power had to go into the hands of the clergy, the court moved from the hands of elected lay judges in the hands of Kadiev, interpreters Sharia. Associate Islam as the cement, all wild and free society in Dagestan, W. given control in the hands of the spiritual and with their help established a single and unlimited power in this once-free countries, . but to them it was easier to make his yoke, . pointed to two great goals, . which Highlanders, . obeying him, . can achieve: the salvation of the soul and the preservation of independence from the Russian,

Time W. called by the mountaineers time Shariah, his fall - the fall of Shariah, as immediately after everywhere revived the old institutions, old elected government and the decision of cases by custom, t. e. on adat. All subordinate W. the country was divided into districts, each of which was administered naib, who had a military-administrative authority. For the court in each naibstve Mufti was appointed by the Kadiev. Naiba was forbidden to solve sharia case, subordinate or Mufti kadiyam. Every four naibstva first obeyed mudiriyas, but that setting W. in the last decade of his rule was forced to abandon because of constant infighting between mudiriyas and Naib. Assistants were naib murids, which, as proven in courage and devotion to holy war (jihad), was assigned to perform more important things. Number mureeds was uncertain, but 120 of them, under the command of youzbashi (the centurion), were honorable custody Sh, were with him bezotluchno and accompanied him in all trips. Officers were required unquestioning obedience to the imam, for disobedience and violations they were subjected to reprimand, demotion, arrest and punishment of flogging, which were spared mudiriyas and nabobs. Military service were required to bear all capable of bearing arms, they were divided into tens and hundreds who were under the command of police constables and constables, subordinate, in turn naib. In the last decade of his work W. started the shelves in 1000, delivshiesya 2 pyatisotennyh, 10 Squadron and 100 units for 10 people, with the respective commanders. Some villages, in the form of redemption, were spared from military service, to supply sulfur, saltpeter, salt, and t. n. Largest army W. not exceed 60 thousand people. From 1842 - 1843 he. SH. started the artillery, part of the abandoned or taken away from us our guns, prepared in part from its own factory in the running, where it was cast about 50 guns, of which the fit was not more than a quarter. Gunpowder was produced in Untsukule, Ganibu and maintenance. Teachers Highlanders in artillery, engineering, and often were marching towards runaway soldiers, which W. caressed and endow. State treasury W. consisted of casual and permanent income: the first brought robbery, . the second consisted of zekyata - Shariah collect a tenth of the income from grain, . sheep and money, . and kharaj - tribute to the mountain pastures and some settlements, . pay the same lodge khans,
. The exact figure income Imam Unknown.

See. Caucasian Collection "(Volume 21); N.F. Dubrovin, "History of War and the Russian domination in the Caucasus" (6 Volume); his "Caucasian War under Nicholas I and Alexander II"; E. Weidenbaum Guide to the Caucasus "(Tbilisi, 1888). More detailed bibliography on the history of W. - Y Miansarova, "Bibliography of the Caucasus.

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