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Bortniansky Dmitry Stepanovich

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Biography Bortniansky Dmitry Stepanovich
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Bortniansky, Dmitri Stepanovich - the famous Russian composer and first director of the court chapel (1751 - 1825). Born in Glukhov (Chernigov province) and seven-year old boy was taken to court singing the chorus. While the court for theatrical performances and concerts, there is no separate chorus, and they attended the same court choir, who sang in the church. Arriving in St. Petersburg., Bortniansky began seriously studying music at Balthazar Galuppi, nominated court opera and ballet composer and conductor. When in 1768, Mr.. Galuppi left Russia Bortniansky was sent abroad at public expense for the continuation of the Venice of his musical education at Galuppi.

Bortniansky acquired a solid composition techniques and showed his talent even in Italy, writing a number of major works, operas, cantatas, sonatas (not published). Some of his operas were on the Italian scene: "Creon" (1777), "Alcides" (1778), "Quintus Fabius" (1779). Bortniansky visited Florence, Bologna, Rome, Naples, studying the works of Italian masters. In 1779, Mr.. Bortniansky returned to St. Petersburg. Works produced at the court of his Paul I was impressed, and immediately he was appointed "court composer of the choir singing". In 1796, the establishment of the court chapel, he was made its first manager and was named Director of vocal music. In this position he remained until his death. His duties included not only conducting the choir, but also the composition of church hymns and administrative superintendence Chapel. Bortniansky improved the composition of the choir, has increased its membership, bringing it gradually from 24 to 60 people, and reached that the chapel served as the sole purpose of church music and is not invited to the performances, which in 1800, Mr.. established his own chorus. Bortniansky improved and the fulfillment of the chorus, making it more strictly ecclesiastical. At the insistence of Bortniansky issued a series of imperial decree, guarding the purity of the church style. Since 1816, Mr.. at 1820g. Bortniansky belonged to the right of censorship on hymns.

Bortniansky was asked to teach sextons parish churches in St. Petersburg. "consistent and simple music-singing", which under his editorship was printed and distributed by the churches of the court tune liturgy in two voices. To contemporaries Bortnyansky his writings, imbued with religious feeling, were a notable step forward, but subsequent generations, even the closest, their style could not be considered completely responsible appointment.

Style church works Bortniansky rather harmonic, contrapuntal than the harmony of, in general, the complexity does not differ. Home Bortniansky melody places are almost always in the upper voice, and taking care of the allocation it rarely gives independent meaning other voices, often moving in parallel thirds and Sexton, that tells the whole a certain monotony. Knowing well the human voice, always wrote Bortniansky uobno for performance and reached the beautiful sonority. But the rich audio side of his singing does not serve the purpose for him or obscure their prayerful mood. That is why many works Bortniansky gladly sung, and now. His "Cherubic" Bortniansky be installed as a prototype, which adhered to and the subsequent Russian composers. From this prototype is not departed and Glinka in his "Cherubic". Bortniansky first made the experience of harmonizing the old church melodies contained in the monophonic motet books published by the Holy Synod for the first time in 1772

Bortniansky buried in St. Petersburg, in the Smolensk Cemetery. In New York, the new Episcopal Cathedral of St.. St. John placed a statue Bortniansky. From the works Bortniansky most famous are the concerts: "Voice of the Lord my cry", "Tell mi death of my Lord" "Thou Vskuyu regrettable, . my soul, "" Let God be scattered at once it ";" Since your beloved village, . Lord "; Lenten chants -" Let my prayer ", . "Now the powers of heaven", . Easter hymns - "Angel vopiyashe", . "Shine, . light "; anthem -" Glorious is our Lord in Zion ",
. Works Bortniansky were published only in 1825, Mr.. under the supervision of Fr. Turchaninova.

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