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Coulomb Charles-Augustin

( French physicist and military engineer)

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Charles-Augustin Coulomb (Coulomb)

Charles-Augustin Coulomb - French physicist and military engineer, was born in g. Angouleme (France) in the family of a government official. Childhood he spent in Paris, where he studied at the College of four nations (the school founded by Will Mazarin). This is where the boys developed an interest to study the exact sciences.
After the school year, Charles left Paris, having left home his father, in Montpellier. Here he is participating in the local scientific society, and wrote his first scientific work. However, you must choose a profession that would provide a comfortable existence: Pendant comes in a military engineering school in Mц╘ziц╗res (this is one of the best technical colleges of the time). They teach not only drawing, surveying, building industry, but with mathematics and physics.
It takes a half years, and in 1861,. Pendants, Mezerskuyu school graduate, is assigned the rank of lieutenant and served with an order: to build a military fort on the island of Martinique - a French overseas colonies. After nine years of construction practices Pendant returned to France in 1776. published a work on the application of the rules of the maxima and minima to some static issues related to architecture ". This work is well received in academic circles, and Charles-Augustin decides to pursue scientific studies. Now they belong to the physical laws observed twisting silk threads and hair. A series of experiments on the friction (1781) leads to a new success: in these studies pendant gets the prize of the Paris Academy of Sciences. Soon he was elected a member of the Academy, and he finally moved to the capital. He became a consultant on various technical issues, as well as "caretaker of water fountains and the King of France."
. However, "Theoretical and experimental study of torsional strength and elasticity of the metal wires" (this is called regular work - "memoir" - Coulomb) still continued to occupy the thought of the French scientist
. And a happy discovery: in 1784, Mr.. Pendant invents "electric scales, . based on the properties of metallic threads have a torsional reaction force, . proportional to the angle of torsion ", . and applies them to measure the force of repulsion is one of the charged balls, . made of core shoots elderberry (very light material, . like modern foam),
. One of the balls in the experiments of Coulomb was attached, the second was located on the "Trainspotting" - a straw, waxed. Straw hung by the middle of a thin (about 40 microns) of silver thread length 75,8 mm: As a result of these experiments pendant 1785. discovered "a fundamental law of electricity, which is formulated as follows:
Repulsive force of two small balls, electrified one kind of electricity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the centers of these balls. Later, . studying the fluctuations of a charged disk (which was a circle of gilt paper, . mounted on "Trainspotting", . suspended in the middle of a thin silk thread) in the field of fixed copper ball, . charged with electricity of opposite sign, . Pendant set, . that "the mutual attraction of the electric fluid, . called positive, . to the electric fluid, . usually called negative, . inversely proportional to the square of the distance ",
. Then check the dependence of the electrical force on the charges of the balls, pendant led a general law, which went down in the history of physics as Coulomb's law:
. "Repulsive, . as well as the attractive force of two electrified spheres, . hence, . and two electric molecules, . directly proportional to the density of the electric fluid of both electric and molecules is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. ",
. Simultaneously with the study of electrical forces pendant studying the interaction of magnetic switches and determines that the magnetic force of attraction "is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between magnetic molecules"
. Pendant devoted to the problems of electricity and magnetism seven works - "Memoirs", published by him in the period 1785-1789 he. Great French Revolution interrupted research Coulomb, and he holds almost two years in the province. And after returning to Paris he was elected a member of the Institute of France (the new French Academy of Sciences).
. The last years of his life passed in Coulomb concerns about the education of a new generation of scientists and engineers and improve public education
. Pendant died in Paris when he was 70 years old.
In honor of the famous French scientist has been named a unit of electrical charge - Pendant (KL), introduced in practice in 1881.

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