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AKHUNDOV Mirza Fatali

( The founder of the Azerbaijani literary realist, materialist philosopher and public figure)

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Biography AKHUNDOV Mirza Fatali
AKHUNDOV (Akhundzadeh), Mirza Fatali (1812-1878) - founder of the Azerbaijani realist literature, the materialist philosopher and public figure.
Born in 1812 in Sheki (consisting of Russia Empire - g.Nuha, the ancient name was subsequently returned to the city). Educated grandfather Alasgarov Akhund, who has been ordained a high. Received a spiritual education in madrasas, . where one teacher was Mirza-Shafi Vazeh, . which may take away from spiritual paths Akhundova, . as he later recalled: 'It was the same Mirza Shafi, . the life and talent who has written poems in Germany (TN,
. 'plagiarism F. Bodenshtedt' - CH.G.): Once he asked me: 'What is the purpose of persecuting the study of science? " I replied that I wanted to be a mullah. Then he said to me: 'Surely you want to become a hypocrite and a charlatan?.. Not to waste his life among the black. Locate another occupation '. Knowing the Azerbaijani language, . studied Persian and Arabic, . and subsequently opened in Russian in Nuhe Russian school (in all these languages Akhundov left the works), . it from a young age and the rest of his life he worked with a translator of Oriental languages in the king's Viceroyalty in Tiflis, . rising to the rank of colonel,

The first significant work - "East poem on the death of Pushkin. It was established in early spring 1837, . when the news came to Tbilisi about the death of the poet (poem under the pseudonym Sabuhi, . 'Morning breath'), . foot-translated into Russian exiled Decembrists A.S.Bestuzhevym-Marlinsky shortly before his death and the fall of that year, . November, . published in the 'observer in Moscow',
, . but a kind of poetic history of Russian literature, . recipient - on the poem - its perfect expression in the poetry of Pushkin: ': Pushkin All Singers, . all the masters head: / bridal chamber adorned with poetry Lomonosov, . / But only Pushkin it dominates one,
. / Land of magic words won Derzhavin, / But only Pushkin in her sovereign lord. / He boldly drained that precious cup, / that filled wine Knowledge.I Karamzin ... / The whole Russian land is crying in a sombre flour, - / He fierce executioner ruthlessly killed. / It is true not saved - a cherished talisman - / From the falsehood of magic, from the machinations and grievances Caucasus serebrokudry / celebrating his funeral, on Pushkin mourns' (translated by P. Antokolsky). Magazine prefaced the publication entry, where a poem called 'beautiful flower', thrown on the grave of Pushkin, and wished success to the 'remarkable talent'. Akhundov first realized by transferring many of his works into Russian, Azerbaijani culture that the way to international fame runs through the Russian language, and it is justified for a total of 20 in.

He socialized with the leading men of her time - the Decembrists, the participants of the Polish uprising of 1830's and 1860's, exiled to the Caucasus, leaders of the Georgian and Armenian culture, who lived in Tiflis. He was familiar with Lermontov, who briefly lived in Tiflis, and taught his 'Tartar' (Azeri) language, a version of that story Ashik Kariba was prompted him Akhundov.

In 1850-1856 Akhundov created six pieces of people's life in excellent Azeri language of life and customs of his society, and laid the foundations of national drama and theater. This tragicomedy "Molla Ibrahim Khalil, . alchemist, . holder of the philosopher's stone "(1850), . "Juliette Jordan, . botanist, . and dervish Mastalishah, . famous magician "(1850, . staged in St. Petersburg on a private stage in 1851, . magazine 'Library to read' a comedy called 'sweet, . Living, . graceful and original ', . t,
. 10), . The Adventures of wazir Lankaran khanate "(1850, . placed in Tiflis in the Russian stage in 1852, staging it in 1873 on the stage of an amateur troupe in Baku was the beginning of Azerbaijani theater), . "Bear - winner of a robber" (1851), . Adventure miser "(1852), . "Pravozastupniki in the city of Tabriz" (1855),
. The author ridicules the prejudice and bigotry, . ignorance and superstition, . hypocrisy and sanctimony, . up in arms against the state bureaucracy, . bribery and money-grubbing powers, . venal justice, . advocates honest work, . high spiritual qualities, . nobility and secular education,

Akhundov - author of the first in Azerbaijan literature realist novel "Deceived stars" with the original plot, suggested by the short phrase, deployed in the tale of the ancient chronicle "History ukrashatelya world of Shah Abbas". The plot allowed to express democratic persuasion: tyrant Shah Abbas told by an astrologer, . that such a day position of the stars threatened his life, . and puts on the throne lzheshaha, . the appointed day, the stars dies, . and Shah Abbas again takes his throne,
. Yes, . Rock fatal, . - Shah said in the story the chief astrologer, . - It can not avoid, . but rock and blind, . it can be avoided! And Shah suggests the way to salvation: he must voluntarily and frankly to abdicate, . away from power, . becoming simply Abbas, . and yield the throne to the sinner, . whose life is worth nothing, . and when the destructive effect of stars explode overhead lzheshaha, . again ascend to the throne,
. But the rock on the alert: all must be considered a true sinner Shah, otherwise the star uchuyut deception, went out and brought the Shah Abbas, wherever he was hiding, and destroy. Sinner is 'man of the people', who dreams of prosperity of people and honest government, 'wicked', branding the tyranny. His erect solemnly on the throne, . he, . wondering stupidity and superstition relatives, . begins, . becoming master, . publish democratic laws, . cares about the happiness of the people, . his education, . removes power from any evil spirits, . titled fools, . loafers and bribe, . embezzlers, . advocates honest labor and t,
. d. His motto is: break the despotic power, to elevate the common man to rule the state; supplant education and science of superstition and fanaticism

. But here's the paradox: the more he tries for the people, . the greater cause of his irritation, . perplexing, . murmurs: what a check from us? who governs us? strange, . but we do not see into pieces and cut by hanging at the gates of human bodies, . - Scary, . but the blood does not stagnate! new shah, . be, . gentle man, . weak, . nor will, . no power,
. And in the day, ordained stars, the people revolted against the opaque and unintelligible to them, and overthrew the Shah of its. Then, . as from oblivion, . arose astrologer and, . learning, . the storm, . who predicted star, . broke over lzheshahom, . triumphantly returns to the throne of the Shah of Shah Abbas, . who ruled for more than one decade, . izmyvayas on own people, . it is well known: born of fear and loyalty, . and love, . and obedience, . and adoration,

. In 1860-1870-e Akhundova takes the idea of reform of the Arabic alphabet, . replacement roman, . adapted to the phonetic features of Turkic languages, . that was implemented for a short time only time in 1920 (from 1927 to 1939) and restored in the time of gaining the state independence of Azerbaijan,

. Peru Akhundova belongs literary hoax - artistic and journalistic and socio-political work "Three letters of Indian principle Kemaluddovle Prince of Persia Dzhalaludovle and response to this latter" (1864-1865), . created under the influence of the French Enlightenment, . in which the author from the standpoint of materialism and militant atheism actively advocate for science and spiritual freedom of man, . educating people, . making the people in the exact sciences, . secular education,
. Here, in the form of confessional, . amplifying the emotional impact of ideas, . as in the story "Cheated star, . presents views on the democratic structure of the State, . subjected to sharp criticism of religious dogma and superstition, . fanaticism, . associated, . mainly, . Islam, . though all religions are the author considers 'empty ghost',
. (Letters were considered lost, were accidentally discovered and purchased by the state in 1927 by his grandson Akhundova and for many decades have identified the development of social and philosophical thought). In order to insure against the wrath of the crowd, not accustomed to open discussion of the civilized 'seditious ideas', M. Akhundov gave himself not for the author of "Letters" and for their owner, who wants to make their contents subject of discussion.

'Alas, you will be angry when you read the letters Kemaluddovle that the very people who are considered to be a happy and quiet for their own future under the shadow of all-powerful monarch - the most benighted nation in the world!..

Lord sits in the capital, imagining that the dominion is only a means to ensure that pamper the body, when the cycle of poverty and hunger. He can get away to have property and life on his own and be the subject of worship subordinates, . lord of soulless slaves and the idol of fools and ingrates selling poets, . hearing their poems, . like the following: 'You sit quietly on his throne, . while the lord and ruler of Byzantium China tremble with fear: the first, . being struck by the sound of your pipes, . and the second - the thunder of the drum of your armies',

. Every sovereign, . respect their dignity and honor to the country's prized, . would be ashamed of such a ruling is denied, and b from the throne, . than to stoop to such a degree and become a laughingstock of the civilized nations: You, . O my people! You number and means a hundred times surpass despot and tyrant, . you have but the consensus and unanimity,
. Were it not for this shortcoming, you can easily think of themselves and not only freed himself from the shackles of a despot, but also from the bonds of absurd dogmas'

. Letters with Azeri, Persian and Russian originals, were not published at the time, although the author has made this a lot of effort, and met with sharp opposition to those of scientists from East and West, to whom he sent them, repeatedly rewriting
. Criticism of the dogmas of Islam, the foundations of the Muslim faith, sometimes too straightforward and not always evidence, cost him serious family problems, friction with both the faithful son, Rashid, and his wife Toubou Khanum, who once challenged his atheism. Because of the letters have been hampered by Akhundova burial in a Muslim cemetery in Tiflis (at the grave of the Soviet years it was a monument, there are monuments in Baku and at home in Sheki).

Akhundov - author of articles on philosophy (the doctrine of Hume, religious sectarianism - babizme, etc.), aesthetics and poetics, which argues the idea of realism. Speaking against the didactic writings, he wrote that "today, these works may not have brought the people favor. Now, useful, responsible readers 'tastes and interests of the nation works are the drama and the novel'.

And again: 'Truth, written in the style of gentle fatherly exhortations, had no influence on the people, accustomed to evil deeds. These edification and preaching only cause revulsion in the reader '. Almost all the works were published during his lifetime in Russian translation of the author (Comedy MFAkhundov, . 1853) and Azeri (Comedy Captain Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh, . Tiflis, . 1859), . and Persian, . French, . English and German languages.,

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