Bukowski CHARLES( American novelist, poet, screenwriter.)
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Biography Bukowski CHARLES
Bukowski, Charles (Bukovski, Charles) (1920-1994) - American writer, poet, writer. Author of more than 40 books - 6 novels, 7 collections of short stories and 32 collections of poems, translated into many languages, according to his works and his participation dropped feature films and documentaries. A defender of the aesthetics of direct and brutal ontological integrity, developed by beatniks, bohemian and marginalized communities of America 1940-60-x - representatives of the so-called 'naturalistic' schools.
Born August 16, 1920 in Germany on the Rhine at Andernach in the family of an employee occupying army. In 1922 the family moved to the U.S. in Baltimore, then to Pasadena, and later finally settles in Los Angeles. Children and school experiences formed the basis of the famous autobiographical novel by Bukowski "a ham sandwich" (Ham on Rye, 1982). In it he talks about first love and the storms of youth maturing, as well as methods of upbringing his father, a supporter of pedantic rigidity, drill and physical punishment
. After an episode of school life, . described in the novel, . when the teacher praised in front of the class written by Chinaski (the protagonist of the novel, . second 'I' the author), . story about a fictional meeting with President Hoover, . not at all embarrassed by the fact, . it was a complete 'lime', . he made for himself an important conclusion: 'So that's what they need to really was: a lie,
. The beautiful lies'. Active reluctance of others to see the unpleasant truth, . departure from it in various forms of social gaming is to Bukowski to life experiences, . which is further reflected in his character, . determined the fate and the general direction of creativity,
After graduating from high school in the 1939-1941 studies at City College of Los Angeles - at the Faculty of Journalism and English. At the beginning of World War II casts a college, goes to New York, then to Philadelphia, where he was recognized by psychiatrists unfit for military service because of 'antisocial'. Wanders around the country, interrupting odd jobs. He worked in a slaughterhouse, in the railway repair crew, the American Red Cross - more than a hundred places in different cities and states. Fasting and restricting himself to be one of chocolate bars a day, wrote of 4-5 short stories and poems in a week, and rewriting them in block letters (typed was not), refers to various magazines. Stories back, and only in 1944, two of which were published in the magazines 'history' and 'Portfolio'.
Then a break in the writers 'experiments in ten years' duration. Those years have been spent wandering 'in people' and the acquisition of personal experience. He is a vagabond, or, as they say, a hectic life - short-lived love and sexual relationships, alcoholism, disassembly with casual acquaintances and the constant search burdensome small earnings. It is surrounded by mostly men 'bottom' - desperate, do not detect its existence in any decent sense. In a submission Bukowski, they at least did not lie in the long run without closing their eyes to the fact that they do not want to see, and in this sense were much closer to the 'righteousness', ie. its deep ontology than the professor and other miscellaneous scientist folk. This period of life ended for a writer in the charity ward at the County Hospital of Los Angeles, where he was placed with a bleeding stomach ulcer, - he received a blood transfusion and strongly recommend surgery.
After a stay in the hospital back to writing - coming from work, wrote poetry and sends poetry journals. One of the issues of the journal 'Harlequin' has been entirely made up of his poems, and a trip to Texas and get acquainted with the editor of the magazine ended his marriage and the birth of his daughter Marina in 1955, although the joint life did not last long. Bukowski continues to maintain your lifestyle, many wrote. Now, with the publications it carries more. In 'Evergreen Review' (Evergreen Revue) published his stories, the California Society of poetry lovers 'Eureka' publishes a mimeograph edition of 200 copies. His first 30-page collection of poems - "Flower, Fist and sensual howl" (Flower, Fist and Bestial Wail, 1960), then leave the "Poems on the long-distance for produvshihsya players" (Longshot Poems for Broke Players, 1962). The main collections of poetry, attracted the attention of critics and readers for his work were published in a small private publishing house 'Ludzhon Press'.
First books Bukowski - collections of short stories and poems - mostly published in the private independent publishing houses, whose owners were sufficiently independent so as not to be led by the literary establishment ratings. Works Bukowski were taken while the complete opposite of writer's sample exquisite passages of intellectual.
New Orleans Publishers 'Ludzhon Press' (Loujon Press) was founded by spouses Webb - a writer and artist John Edgar Gypsy and engaged in major publications in the 1954-1967 works Bukowski. Their publishing practice began with the release print of two collections of poetry Bukowski: "It keeps my heart" (It Catches my Heart in Its Hands, . 1963) with a foreword by Professor Louisiana University Dzh.U.Korringtona, . an assessment of his poetry, . and "The Crucifixion in the hand of death" (Crucifix in a Deathhand, . 1965),
. Collections were drawn by hand on a thin multicolored textured paper limited edition (now - Bibliographic rare). Biographer Neil Chirkovski wrote about the impression, which made the appearance of this collection - he 'caused a shock wave in a poetic world. Bukowski's reputation to make a quantum leap has helped everything - printing, paper, binding, this is an introductory word Bill Korringtona: poetry itself consistent love thoroughness of production '.
In the early 1960 'Ludzhon Press' publishes the well-known Ultra radical leftist in orientation of the magazine Outsider (The Outsider) - all came out 6 numbers. In the contents of the first issue (1961) can find the names of almost all the leading writers, beatniks - Dzh.Keruak, G. Miller, William Burroughs and others. In the first issue of 'Outsider' came out and one of the first sets of 11 short poems by Bukowski, Charles Bukowski amounting Album. By mid-1960 his poems were already eager to print hundreds of small poetry journals. In 1966 up to the poll of the journal 'Outsider' Bukowski was awarded the title of 'the outsider, the'
. In a highly critical biography of assessed Nile Chirkovski Hank: The Life of Charles Bukowski (1999), . by which in 16 years personally acquainted with his idol after reading the 'Outsider' and his first collection of poems, . described the unique phenomenon of the time - the friendship of two writers from different cities: "In those 'outsider' years in the United States had only two real cities outsiders - Los Angeles Bukowski and New Orleans, John Webb,
. : Webb: Bukowski was represented in one row with beatniks: for Bukowski really went out of view of the world 1940's, giving the voice of voiceless. Then Edgar Webb joined the perception of the author's works of writers of the 50's. And Walter Louenfels designed the views of the radical left movement in literature in his letters. : it was: bohemian attitude to the world and the underground '.
At this time Bukowski was known primarily as a poet, who wrote energetic, nerve-racking poems, filled with wit and fierce bitterness, in part reminiscent of Walt Whitman, part of 'automatic writing' Surrealists and Beats. 'First of all, his poetry was too rough and raw. On the other hand, he made it simple and affordable. " (G. Loklin, University of California). Bukowski: Poetry - a product of the philosophy of 20 in vagrancy., It combines the search for reasons of its own existence, the reluctance included in 'Vanity Fair' of his time and pointless 'drift' with the flow of life
. This sad heroes and heroines of the prose of this 'alienation of the poet and writer of genuine fullness' (K. Resrot) - Criminals, . prostitute, . Players, . drunkards, . slum dwellers and the Los Angeles bars - to accept criticism more seriously, . than his poetry,
. 'American language, what he hears Bukowski, in fact quite easy to' nail to the paper, nail ', - he is such a specific and' tight fitting '(Dzh.U.Korrington). His style was compared to Ernest Hemingway - Bukowski also preferred the simple adjectives, words and paragraphs were short and the 'case'. 'Sometimes Bukowski called beatniks, sometimes a naturalist, but he wrote as if he was a plumber' (M. Nemtsov). He despised the 'lime' and pretentiousness and shriveled from too pretentious literary tokens. Style is simple and straightforward, concise and focused about it, no metaphors, allusions. Its motto - 'I like to say that I have to say, and roll away'
. In 1966, in Santa Rosa (California), John Martin, . an ardent admirer of Bukowski, , . primarily for the sake of, . to publish works of Bukowski - autobiographical sketches, . everyday stories, . Observation, . poems,
. Here and in the fall 1960 collections of his "On the street along the path of terror, agony," "The days run like wild horses over the hills" and others. As Bukowski was in need of money and constantly looking for earnings, John Martin in 1969 offered to pay him monthly for $ 100 that he is not distracted from authorship. Bukowski was extremely pleased with this proposal.
Now 'the portfolio' 'Black Sparrow' - 23 titles of works of Bukowski, it is - one of the most respected independent publishers U.S.. His books can be found on the typical design of loose colored covers - ascetic font compositions in the spirit of Russian Constructivism. Proceeds from the books 'Buka' still make up about one third of the 800 thousandth of the annual sales volume publishers. 'He helped me build my publishing business, I helped him become a successful writer and a wealthy man. It's so - died Hank is still a scourge, but the whip is not poor ', - said John Martin, who once worked for the company to deliver goods to its beginning to the publishing house would print little-known books by Charles Bukowski.
In early 1970 at the age of 50 years for 20 days, Bukowski wrote his novel "Post Office" (Post Office, 1971), narrating about the monotonous, brain-numbing routine of work hard at the post by Henry Chinaski - in effect, a permanent hero of his works. In based on real life experiences Bukowski - in 1958 he worked at the sorting of mail. Noting the emergence of "post office", some critics noted that the amount described therein episodes have not formed into a coherent whole, while others believed that such a 'ragged' story reflects the aimlessness of life of the protagonist. According to John Martin, the U.S. was Bukowski's first novel sold 75 thousand. ind. all over the world - 500 thousand. ind.
Between 1969 and 1972, and Bukowski Chirkovski released three collections of Literature "laughter and a man, armed to the teeth". In 1974 Bukowski receives a scholarship of the National Fund Promotion of Arts, moved into an apartment in Hollywood. Moonlight in men's magazines including Hustler, as well as underground newspapers 'free press in Los Angeles', 'Nola Express' and 'Open City' (Open City), which has a column 'Notes old goat' - Thunder adored him hippies.
In the next novel "Factotum" (Factotum, 1976) describes the adventures of Henry Chinaski, earnestly trying to find a suitable permanent job (factotum - a journeyman, master of all trades). Compared with previous works, its image is given in greater detail. High expectations Chinaski devalues and degrades to a ridiculous stiffness, preferring the society boozer and every 'unsettled' people. In his solitude, they support each other simply stay close. At the same time yearning for 'high' is present in their lives, sometimes coloring it in tragic tones. She also pushes them to alcohol: 'No, I would long kira my throat cut. /: / Drunkenness - a form of suicide, when you are allowed to return to life and start all over again the next day '.
Next come his novels, "Women" (1978), "Ham on the bread" (1982), collections of "Africa, Paris, Greece", "Konin", "All the world and my asshole", etc.. They again described forays into the world of sloggers, shabashniks, whores and the bartenders. His hero is tired of political correctness and 'plastic' 'kulturka', where everyone was lying to each other and where we shall not get a simple word of honor. One joy - a good drink, sympathetic friend and a couple of coins for betting on horse races. In the novel "Women" (Women, 1978) Henry Chinaski declaration of love for 'his' women.
By the end of the 1970 Bukowski becoming popular. Increasingly, he was invited to speak to readers with the reading of poetry ($ 200). And his trip to Europe - visits to Germany and France have significant cultural events and actively publicized on TV and in press
. Analyzing released in 1972, a large collection of short stories erection, . ejaculation, . eksgibitsii and history of Ordinary Madness "(Erections, . Ejaculations, . Exhibitions and General Tales of Ordinary Madness), . critics have tried to provide the main direction of innovative search Bukowski,
. Treat it as such formal innovations such as the lack of capitalization in proper names or italics dialogues? Alternatively, the novelty lies in the specific Rabelaisian humor, . ridiculed one and all - writers, . politicians, . feminists, . homosexuals, . among which a simple guy like Hank feels like an outcast and fossil,
In the works, which came into the collection in 1983 was withdrawn by the feature film "History of Ordinary Madness" (Italy - France, directed by Marco Ferreri, starring Ben Gazarra and Ornella Mutti) - one of the best adaptations Bukowski. Cross-plot of the film is the history of his famous story "The most beautiful woman in town". Can be considered successful, and another film version of his works, . shot in the genre of black comedy and psychological drama, . - Tape "Cold Moon" (France, . 1989, . director Patrick Bushite, . starring Patrick Bushite and Jean-Francois Stephen), . the adventures of two 'otvyaznyh' buddies,
. Despite all the 'doltishness' their humor, the characters are not alien to lofty thoughts of being and beauty of the world, which can open to anyone, and in the most unexpected form.
Kinodokumentalistika also passed Bukowski. In the early 1970's, Taylor Hackford was filmed about him 'an honest and straight', according to Bukowski, a documentary. In 1983, the Canadian director Ron Mann created the documentary "Poetry in Motion" on the North American poetic renaissance. Personnel hour and a half movie, which commemorated the dozens of the most famous American poets who read their poems to the accompaniment of your favorite music, accompanied by a comment author Charles Bukowski.
Bukowski was invited to work in Hollywood as a screenwriter. In his autobiographical script written for the Cannon Group Inc. the film "Piano" (Barfly, director Barbet Schroeder, 1987), which were filmed Faye Dunaway and Mickey Rourke as Henry Chinaski. The film had the audience with some success. Bukowski, in turn, took the opportunity 'to make the full program' Hollywood kitchen - he wrote another novel, "Hollywood" (Hollywood, 1989), painting order that prevails in the famous 'dream factory'. Against the background of 'wrong side of life' of Hollywood party-goers and pikirovok between the directors, he displays the image of the local genius of Victor Norman - a writer who lives at the expense of producers. Its prototype - New York writer Norman Mailer, he believed in style and worldview akin to self - Californian Bukowski.
Gradually, the literary establishment has become 'gently, though with some apprehension pressed it to his vast chest'. Bukowski has been released biography, written by Hugh Fox, in France he admired the poetry of Jean-Paul Sartre and Jean J.. By the end of his life he became fashionable, as had the fans and opponents, are still not in a hurry to rank his name to 'great literature'.
He himself was a classic and modern literature for the most part considered pretentious, smug, too balanced and false. He believed that he wrote 'underground and not rich', ie. not, as expected. At the same time he liked P. Neruda, an early Hemingway, Dzh.Selindzher, Celine, Knut Hamsun, F. Villon, F. Dostoevsky. 'In human terms, . despite his quarrelsome, . cantankerous and quarrelsome nature, . It has always been present in the absolute clarity of mind and control the mind, . as well - so fascinating bonhomie, . courage and generosity, . that it was called 'the only truly beloved poet of the underground'',
. (D. Nyulav).
In 1993 the publishing house 'Black Sparrow' was the last lifetime Bukowski anthology "Run with the prey". It became arranged in chronological order most of the poetic and prosaic material, was published in. His latest novel, "Waste Paper" (Pulp, 1994), as the previous one, have a sense of humor, the emancipation of the speech, the emphasis on sexuality and slang. The novel is imbued with the mood of impending death - 'I want to be buried near the racetrack: where you will hear the last race'.
Charles Bukowski died of leukemia on March 9, 1994 at his home in San Pedro, where he lived from 1979.
His admirers 'Buka' turned out to be particularly large in Europe, where it readily transferred and transfers - namely the sale of his books in Europe, with millions of copies, made Bukowski a wealthy man. In Russia, since 1990, his works are published by 'The verb' (Moscow) and 'new cultural space' in the series 'Books Buka' (St. Petersburg). Domestic fans of his work finds a match in the manner of writing and biographies episodes Bukowski Sergei Dovlatov, note the influence of 'Buka' creativity and approach to life Eduard Limonov.
Bukowski is the most talented and respected leader of the so-called naturalistic school (Meat School). Its representatives are rude and aggressive, 'twisting inside my insides hurt', write about the world lumpen proletariat. As mentioned Chirkovski: ': came straight rough style that is less like poetry, but to a greater resemblance to what seemed to be in the bar a little sits opposite you and starts a conversation'. Bukowski - writer, who never believed in traditional American values, and draws its inspiration in the life of its board of 'vagrants. Demoralized colorful lumpen proletariat prove to be no less profound and interesting than the middle and upper class. They, too, has its own set of human values and its code of honor. Because they follow the commandments: 'Look honestly face the truth, and you immediately feel better', they have the courage to call things 'their lousy name', not embellishing the truth and not burying its head in the sand.
Creativity Bukowski - a sort of anarchist satire and provocation: ': it challenges. He constantly throws a glass of cold water right in your face and demands that you think about who you are and what is your life. " (Chirkovski).
He was interested in the naked and undisguised truth of life, serious, fundamental truth underlying. It focuses on the basics of life, which are often hidden under a bushel, but they hold the entire structure of human existence. Bukowski interested in the person of his 'ontological foundation', because people inherently united, despite differences in upbringing, education and culture.
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