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( Tatar writer and poet)

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Biography GHAFUR Mazhit
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Mazhit Gafuri (1880-1934)

Mazhit Nurganievich Gafurov (Mazhit Gafuri) was born on 20 July (old style 2 August) 1880. village Zilim-Karanovo Sterlitamak County Ufa province (now Gafuriysky region of Bashkortostan). Early orphaned. In 1898, Mr.. student enrolled in madrassas famous Zaynully-ishan. In their free time working on the goldfields entrepreneurs Ralievyh, where he met with the life of miners. This experience will then be reflected in his works of art. Later M. Gafuri a teacher in the Kazakh steppes, is collecting samples of folk art shows in those years and interest in Russian literature. Since 1904. M. Gafuri studies at Kazan madrassas 'Muhammadiyah'. However, he at the end of 1906. returned to Ufa and continued his studies at the famous to the whole East madrassas 'Galia'. After the revolution, and in the 20 i.i. awarded the title 'Hero of Labor', a lot of effort to organize the periodical press of the Bashkir Autonomous Republic - Newspapers 'Our Way', 'Freedom', 'Fighting', 'The Red Path', 'The poor of the East', 'Ural', 'Bashkortostan', 'New Village'.

. The first works of M. Gafuri appeared on the eve of the first Russian Revolution and were established on the principles of educational realism
. But soon appear in M. Gafuri acute social, political poetry, scourging the colonial policy of the king, with the strengthening of the national liberation struggle in the beginning of the century in his work clearly express the ideas of critical realism. If, . say, . in the first book of poems Gafuri 'Siberian Railway or position of the nation' (1904) contrasted with the progressive developments of time and the backwardness of the native people in the spirit of realism and educational, . something in the story 'Life, . held in poverty 'clearly expressed the class position of the author, . criticism of the old world,
. This story is remarkable for the introduction to the world of literature unknown until this time the hero - the rural poor. Blatant preachy, rationalism characteristic of the early works of the poet, due, apparently, influence on his work of poetry of the East rationally and educational directions. The first Russian revolution and its impact on changing the world Gafuri M.. In his poem 'Our Days', 'Two Birds', 'Rich Man' (1905-1907 yy) reflected a sharp clash of social classes. The profound changes in the outlook of the poet clearly visible especially in his poems 'Will in 1906 in 1907' and 'Response in 1907'.

. The poet creates works reliably reveal the sharp contradictions of time, mercilessly critical of class inequality, all oppression ( 'I went to the bazaar')
. And in the works of the poet of these years there are not only didactic instruction (such as in the first verse), but realistic picture of life, true character, a living landscape, allegory, sharp satire.

. Critique of class inequality, social injustice and the stories are imbued M. Gafuri 'Hungry year or sell the girl' (1906), 'Children - Orphans' (1907)
. Truthfulness of realistic images is characterized by the story 'Poor' (1907). Nodal time highlights the contradictions in the story M. Gafuri 'Life Khamit, or Leila and my life' (1911), written in the orgy of reaction after the defeat of the revolution of 1905.

. Woe to the people, caused by the imperialist war, the despair of the masses reflected in the realistic images of the story 'Soldatka Hamid' (1915), in his poem 'To know, no you, God! " etc.

. After the revolution of 1917
. Gafuri all its forces gave to the establishment and development of the Bashkir literature and its genres. Writes realistic stories, poems, and poems, plays 'Red Flag' (1917), 'Hot Heart' (1918), 'Red grapes' (1925). On the breadth of visual evidence and his lyrical works, glorifying nature ( 'Ray', 'I went out in the field'), ode glorifying love, beauty, harmony of life ( 'a withered flower', 'strange?', 'I'm drunk' )

. In the twenties to determine the main direction in the work Gafuri - Realistic
. Program product claimed realistic principles of the poet's verses were 'Torn Pages' (1923), 'Songs of Heaven'.

In the mid 20's i.i. in creativity Gafuri strengthen civilian motives great place took political lyrics. The poet creates a series of journalistic poems about Lenin, the Communist Party ( 'Funeral melody', 'He is forever in our memory').

In the second half of the 20's i.i. and early 30's i.i. Gafuri created a series of stories 'Chernolikie' (1927), 'Steps of Life' (1928), 'On the goldfields of the poet' (1930), laying the foundations of the Bashkir prose of the Soviet period.

. Drama M. Gafuri 'Red Star' (1925) was the first in the Bashkir dramatic work, which showed images of peasants during the Civil War
. In 1928-1929 i.i. M. Gafuri wrote the libretto 'Worker', affecting the development of national music drama.

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