Kharkevich Alexander( Scientific)
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Biography Kharkevich Alexander
Just a short time (only 61 years old) lived Kharkevich Alexander - one of the largest domestic scholars in the field of communication, but his life was extremely busy, but he made was not one page of the history of Soviet science. A whole conscious life. A. Kharkevich was subordinated to a common purpose and that purpose was scientific creativity.
In the life of a. A. Kharkevich as a researcher can be divided into two periods. In the first (until 1952), his research interests are related to problems of acoustics. During this period he performed very important for the country's development in the field of electro-acoustics and wrote a number of fundamental monographs, which set out a coherent theory of electro-acoustic apparatus in the form convenient for applications.
. In the late 40-ies
. almost simultaneously top scientists XX century are two fundamental theories, . establishing the basic laws of telecommunications: theory of potential noise immunity, . gave the engineers a tool for the synthesis of optimal devices receive signals in the presence of interference (in the Academy,
. A. Kotelnikov, USSR, 1947) and information theory, establishing the laws of communication on the communication channels (K. Shannon and H. Viner, USA, 1948). Both theory - the cornerstone of the general theory of communication.
It should be noted that in the early 50-ies. relationship has emerged in the United States of information theory in our country have been wary of ideological reasons. In issued in 1953. in the Russian translation of the classical article to. Shannon's "Mathematical Theory of Communication" editor of the translation misrepresented its name and dropped, apparently, as abstract and idealistic, the essential part of the article.
A second period of life. A. Kharkevich (since 1952) is associated with intensive research in the field of communication theory and the organization in this new direction of the extensive studies. It is safe to say that it was thanks to Academician A. A. Kharkevich this promising research area was in our country, the intensive development. The Academy of Sciences (AN) USSR unfolding research in communication theory, . published Russian translations of major works of American scholars on Information Theory, . appear first-class domestic scientists, . which belong to the scientific results, . been widely recognized throughout the world.,
. By its very nature a
. A. Kharkevich was not only scientists, but the organizers and the Educator. In different periods of his life he has organized several scientific laboratories, where the unfolded important for the country studies. Essential and integral part of his work was teaching. He was an excellent instructor. His books and articles in impeccable clarity, simplicity and elegance of presentation. He wrote excellent books on radio engineering, many of which have been translated into foreign languages. First, brilliantly written and published in our country books on communication theory and Peru belong to A. A. Kharkevich.
Activity A. A. Kharkevich was not only aimed at solving key scientific problems and the organization of major research centers in our country. He thought globally and is already in the early 60 years have seen great prospects of development of telecommunications worldwide. Even then, he divined the future creation on Earth of the Global Information Society, . when every earthling will have communications, . that will allow him to obtain at any time access to information anywhere on the globe,
. He clearly understood the need to modernize the country's entire telecommunications system to be developed on a single plan, based on common principles and standards to be met by its individual elements. In 1962. on the basis of his proposals was adopted by an important government decision to establish a unified automated communication system (EASC).
A. A. Kharkevich was born on February 3, 1904, Mr.. in St. Petersburg. Starting to learn even before the revolution in high school, he was in 1921. graduated from a Soviet secondary school and the following year enrolled at the Petrograd Institute of Electrical. A study at the Institute. A. Kharkevich combines with the work of the lineman in the battery lab, and then engineering and project management at the plant. Even working in the factory, he performs research and publishes in 1928. his first scientific article, "Experimental study of some properties of the loudspeakers."
From 1929. A. A. Kharkevich works in an acoustic laboratory, which is part of the largest Soviet scientific institutions - the Central Radio Laboratory (TSRL) in Leningrad, and is quickly becoming a leading member of the CE. Already in 1929. he developed the first domestic dynamic cone loudspeaker and in the same year began (along with another employee TSRL K. A. Lamaginym) to the development of horn loudspeakers. In 1930-1931,. pyatisotvattnye speakers of their design applied to voice Moscow's Red Square and the Palace Square in Leningrad. In 1930. A. A. Kharkevich graduate to receive a diploma engineer.
Since 1932. indispensable occupation A. A. Kharkevich is teaching. He teaches and conducts research at the Military Academy of electrical. In 1938. A. A. Kharkevich defended his doctoral dissertation and received a Ph.D.. By this time he became a leading national scientists in the field of theoretical and applied acoustics. In the same year he headed a department at the Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute of Communications, which runs until 1941.
Before the Great Patriotic War, A. A. Kharkevich publishes three fundamental monograph "Electroacoustic equipment (1933)," Examples of technical computing in the field of acoustics "(1938) and" Theory of electro-acoustic devices "(1940).
During the war, A. A. Kharkevich manages the laboratory at the Physico-Technical Institute USSR Academy of Sciences, which develops electro-acoustic transducers based on piezoelectric and magnetostrictive effects. These converters are used in sonar devices, widely used in civilian and military fleet, including submarines, as well as in other fields of technology.
In 1944, at the end of the war a. A. Kharkevich sent to Lviv Polytechnic Institute as Professor and Head of Department. Four years later he was elected a corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR and moved to Kiev, where he organizes the department of Technical Physics at the Institute of Physics Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In Kiev A. A. Kharkevich successfully led the development of a new field of technology - magnetic recording signals in the same years, performs deep theoretical study of wave processes and establishes the importance of reciprocity in the relation of acoustic systems. Results from the 40-ies. Research he published in his books "Theory converters" (1948) and "Transient wave phenomena" (1952).
In 1952, Mr.. A. A. Kharkevich moved to Moscow and headed by the Department of Theoretical Radio Engineering of Moscow Electrotechnical Institute of Communications (now the Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics), is fully immersed in the pedagogical work.
. For 10 years he wrote wonderful books on radio engineering, which played a prominent role in the training of specialists in this area
. In 1952, Mr.. published two books, "Spectra and Analysis" and "Oscillations" in 1956. - "Nonlinear and parametric phenomena in the radio," in the next year - "Theoretical Foundations of Radio", and in 1962. - "Fundamentals of Radio Engineering". These talented written books enjoyed enormous popularity, they were transferred to Poland, China, USA and England.
Thin scientific intuition And. A. Kharkevich tells him that the central problems in the field of telecommunications is a problem of communication theory. Since 1954, Mr.. he, as a senior research fellow, began its activities in the Laboratory for the development problems of wired USSR, engaged in an entirely new direction for itself, the theory of communication. Since then, he is actively research in this area and publish their results in scientific journals. Later, the laboratory was called the Laboratory of information transmission systems (LSPI).
It should be noted that in 1954. A. A. Kharkevich 50 years. He - authoritative experts in the field of acoustics, and has a strong position in the scientific world. And in order to develop new and highly complex scientific problems that need long study made earlier by other scientists, requires a period of "vzhivaniya" in these new problems. If one considers that with age, as a rule, success rarely comes to the scientists, then there was no guarantee that initiated the study would leave a decent mark in his chosen field of new. To decide on such a sharp turn in his academic fate, a scientist, no doubt, we need great courage, great faith in their intellectual capacity and in his star. By virtue of his human nature A. A. Kharkevich could not go through life on "well-trodden" rut.
Already in 1955. A. A. Kharkevich released the first in our country, the book "Essays on the general theory of communication", in which, as the academician of the. A. Kotelnikov, uses geometric methods of investigation. This book has allowed a wide range of engineers and scientists familiar with the major ideas of information theory.
In 1961. based on the initiative of LSPI A. A. Kharkevich decree of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences established the Institute for Information Transmission Problems (IPPI), USSR Academy of Sciences. Director of the Institute shall appoint a. A. Kharkevich. The Institute was created to develop the theory of information transfer and its applications, . development policy issues common transmission and distribution of information (the structure of networks and nodes, . switching, . Automatic Control, . Teletraffic Theory), . development of automatic identification (reading machines, . recognition of visual images, . recognition of speech sounds),
. Since 1961. began to publish the journal "Problems of Information Transmission". It published the work of the largest domestic scholars, such as the Academy of A. N. Kolmogorov, Professor P. L. Dobrushin, M. S. Pinsker, E. L. Bloch, L. M. Fink and many others.
. In the early years of the IPPI there investigations were launched on the theory of transmission of information and coding theory, . formulated and developed the concept of Unified communication network, . identified new areas of research in the theory of pattern recognition and image processing.,
. To work in the field of communication theory A
. A. Kharkevich attracted a large number of specialists (engineers, communication specialists, mathematicians, physicists). Much of the work in the IPPI was carried out with the direct involvement of A. A. Kharkevich or under the scientific supervision. He dealt with problems of detection and reception of weak signals, image compression, signal spectrum, statistical and error-correcting coding and studied the noise immunity of various types of modulation. Annually, since 1954, has been published 5.7 of its scientific work on the theory of communication.
Scientists IPPI were carried deep mathematical studies in the field of information theory (P. L. Dobrushin, M. S. Pinsker, B. S. Tsybakov, and. A. Ovseevich, etc.), coding theory (E. L. Bloch, in. V. Zyablov, K. SH. Zigangirov, K. A. Meshkovsky, H. E. Kirillov, etc.) and Teletraffic Theory (A. D. Kharkevich, D. P. Basharin M. A. Shneps-Shneppe, etc.). Were carried out very important for the practice of switching on the methods of information flow and management of large networks of communication (in. N. Roginsky IN. I. Neumann, in T. Lazarev, D. G. Sawin, etc.). Academic A. A. Kharkevich stimulated in the IPPI study information transmission systems with feedback, the results were summarized in written in 1963. Professor E. L. Bloch one of the first books in this direction - "Noise Immunity of communications systems with repeated". At the initiative of Alexander Alexandrovich in IPPI has been developed methods of image transmission, using the properties of view and the statistics of the image (S. M. Shtar'kov, J. Yustesen, L. P. Yaroslavsky and others), and developed a number of aspects of the theory of pattern recognition (B. C. Fain, E. M. Braverman, IN. A. Garmash, M. A. Azerman etc.).
In 1963, Mr.. Last published a remarkable book A. A. Kharkevich Combating interference ". In her with amazing clarity outlined many very complex problems in the theory of noise immunity and indicated a number of potential problems. This book is sold immediately, and its second edition saw the light in early 1965.
For outstanding services to science A. A. Kharkevich was in 1960. elected a corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and in 1964. - A full member. He was awarded the Order of Lenin and Red Banner of Labor.
A. A. Kharkevich died suddenly on March 30, 1965, Mr.. Moscow. He created the Institute for Information Transmission Problems, and today remains the largest research center on the development problems of communication theory. This institute from 1966 to 1989, was chaired by well-known Soviet scientists in the field of communication, a corresponding member of USSR Academy of Sciences. I. Siforovym, and since 1990. - Academician H. A. Kuznetsov.
Fate averted a. A. Kharkevich only ten years to work in the field of communication theory. However, during this short period he made a surprising number.
. Critical to his credit - the organization IPPI, . the world-famous research center, . which successfully worked several hundred leading scientists in the field of information theory, . were carried out numerous theoretical studies and important practical developments.,
. Exceptionally large educational role A
. A. Kharkevich. Thanks to his translations of relevant works of foreign scholars and original articles and books, . presentations at scientific conferences, . which explains the basic concepts of communication theory, . to the problems of this theory was brought to the attention of thousands of scientists of our country and created a very conducive atmosphere for rapid development of this scientific field in the USSR.,
. In a number of his own original scientific papers containing ideas that have had a major impact on the development of communications technology and have not lost their importance today.
. In his paper "Transmission of signals modulated noise" ( "Telecommunications", 1957, "11) And Academy
. A. Kharkevich theoretically demonstrated the effectiveness of the use of broadband signals to increase noise immunity of the reception of multi-beam communication channels. It was a totally unexpected scientific results, contrary to entrenched ideas in the years engineers. Unfortunately, in our country to implement these ideas if it did not reach. Similar ideas were developed in the United States in 1956-1958. Which have been implemented as a theoretical study and practical work. In 1958, Mr.. large American scholars P. Price and P. E. Greene published a famous article, containing a detailed description of a radically new system of communication "rake" the practical realization of these studies.
Academic A. A. Kharkevich and Professor E. L. Bloch suggested method of correcting errors in the channels of communication, in which these errors occur and are grouped packages. In such channels the task of correcting packet errors can be reduced to the problem of correcting independent errors by using the method of interleaving symbols, . which is a permutation of symbols transmitted in such a way, . the neighboring symbols transmitted code combination proved to be sufficiently spaced in time, . so that their distortion in the communication channel are independent,
. At the reception is restored to their original order of characters. This simple idea was suggested by a. A. Kharkevich and E. L. Bloch ( "Telecommunications", 1960, "9) and later (1970) American scientist J. L. Ramsay. Today the method of interleaving of symbols used in many systems, microwave radio and mobile communications, in which when receiving digital signals there is a grouping of errors.
A. A. Kharkevich was a very bright personality and had a developed sense of humor. According to the memoirs S. M. Brau de-Zolotarev one of his students, to communicate with him was extremely interesting and instructive. He has always spoken out vigorously, briefly, figuratively. Many of his statements were aphoristic, to disclose his philosophical attitude towards science and remembered for many years.
. Here are some of them:
. "In any sample savvy and simply smart rarely occur with equal probability, whether Petrov, Ivanov, engineers, candidates, doctors and so on
. Other housewife for a dinner party to expend so much creative energy, would be happy about how many members of the Academic Council.
In discussing how to embrace new ideas of justification, he once remarked: "Truth has no right to modesty. It must appear in all nakedness in such place and at such time that no one dared to pretend that it is not noticed. "
. Very deep is following his statement: "We must learn to distinguish the end point of misunderstanding the idea from the beginning of its understanding
. Between them lies a considerable time and labor.
In conversations with graduate students, he said: "Some silly paradigms die only with their native". And again: "The overriding objective scientist - awareness of own limitations. And we are all limited lifetime, working hours per day and, unfortunately, abilities. The second problem - personally avoid the effect of premature saturation, when the joy of success obscures the way forward. "
. Turning to prospects for the development of communication theory, he said: "The genius of Shannon gave all the directions of mathematical coding theory, information theory, but he was forced to withdrew the restrictions complexity and delay
. Our task is to develop a constructive coding theory, justifying the choice of coding the simplest and the least delay, reaching a given result.
. In discussing the article proposed for publication, he told the author: "You have already shown in previous work that this idea is dead
. Is it important to the reader discussion on what category to bury her? "
He often asked his graduate students, the difference of the thesis of the research. And without the consistent answer, said: "Research is good, if you require many sequels, and thesis - should have timely end."
Paying special attention to the intelligence of their students,. A. Kharkevich so formulated its credo assess their knowledge on exams. He said: "I put the" five "to someone who knows and understands everything," four "- one who understands everything but does not know anything," three "- someone who knows everything but understands nothing but" Two "-someone who knows nothing and does not understand."
. He had a developed sense of self-esteem and deep respect for its employees, regardless of their position
. The feelings of servility to the high command, he was deprived. Once, when he was summoned to the leadership of the Academy, he asked to postpone the meeting because they have been appointed meeting graduate students and staff.
A. A. Kharkevich was the artistic kind, understood and loved nature, loved traveling behind the wheel of a car and a motor boat, which ran with great skill. In his leisure hours he was perfectly sculpted from clay, was fond of artistic photography. His color stereoscopic photographs were carried out professionally. He loved movies and modern literature. He had "golden hands" and he liked at leisure to engage in various crafts. In his study was the lathe, he could repair clocks and any fine piece of jewelry, eliminate defects in the car. But the most favorite and the main thing in his life was science. He believed that science - the most important, most beautiful and most essential in human life.
A. A. Kharkevich was a man of deep thought and was interested in not only technical problems. He was interested, in particular, the secret nature of human creativity. In a recent article "Some views on the mechanism of the creative process," A. A. Kharkevich examines views A. Poincare and U. Ashby on the issue of creativity and present their own views. He concludes that, in principle, possible to create a machine to perform creative functions, which is consistent with the idea of Poincare: Create - is to recognize, is to choose from many possible combinations of those ideas that are useful. "
. Who lived in the XIX century English writer Samuel Smiles once made a wise idea: "The number of years still does not indicate the length of life, human life is measured by what he had done to her and felt"
. If you judge a life expectancy of academician A. A. Kharkevich from this point of view, it was unusually long. The same writer stated: "Books have the ability to immortality. They are the most durable fruits of human activity ". His creative work and his wonderful books Academician A. A. Kharkevich, without doubt, a privileged place in the history of Soviet science.