ERSTED Hans Christian( Scientific)
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Biography ERSTED Hans Christian
Winter 1819/1820 academic year (in some sources - February 15, . other - even in December), a physics professor at Copenhagen Hans Christian Oersted in a lecture at the university demonstrated a heating wire of the voltaic electricity pole, . for what amounted to an electrical, . or, . as they said, . galvanic circuit,
. On the demonstration table was the marine compass, on top of a glass lid which held one of the wires. Suddenly someone from the students (of these ubiquitous curious students!) Happened to notice that when Oersted locked chain, the magnetic compass needle is deflected toward. Repeated closure of the chain leading to the same result. It was opened by the action of electric current (Oersted said: "The movement of the wire electric fluid") on a magnetic needle.
Coincidence? Not quite. Rights was an ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, izrekshy: "The case is helping the enlightened mind". For many years, tirelessly walked Oersted to this historic moment.
Hans Christian Oersted was born on August 14, 1777, Mr.. in Rudkebinge (one of the Danish island) in the family apothecary. Working in a chemical laboratory, where a boy of eleven Oersted had helped his father, and reading books on chemistry piqued his interest in science. In 1797, Mr.. Hans graduated from the Medical Faculty, University of Copenhagen. Even then, affected breadth of interests Oersted. With great enthusiasm while listening to lectures on physics and mathematics, he at the same time, wrote an essay on aesthetics (1796), and an article on medicine (1798), marked with gold medals University. In 1798, Mr.. Oersted was awarded a Ph.D.. Then travel to Germany and France (1801-1804 gg.), Where Oersted acquainted with the major philosophers and scientists of the time. Upon his return to Denmark, organized the reading of private lectures on physics and chemistry. The huge success of these lectures promote the appointment of Oersted in 1806. extraordinary professor of physics and chemistry at the University of Copenhagen. Since 1817, Mr.. He was full professor and board member of the University of Copenhagen, and from 1829. served, in addition, the director of the Copenhagen Polytechnic.
From 1815, Mr.. the end of life Oersted was the secretary of the Royal Society of Denmark.
. Combining a bright accounting talent with great pedagogical talent, Oersted much to radical reorganization of physics teaching in schools of Denmark
. He created the first in the country physical laboratory, organized a Society for the Promotion of natural science. Physics at Oersted ceased to be a minor matter, as it was then in Denmark (and elsewhere), and became an independent discipline.
Oersted put much effort to create a national School of Physics. In his textbook "Science of universal laws of nature" in Denmark was carried out teaching physics for 50 years. He attached great importance the study of history of science.
Research Oersted, which refers to the beginning of the first years of XIX century, were deeply imbued with the idea of universal interconnection phenomena in nature. In numerous experiments Oersted sought link between thermal and electrical phenomena, showed similar effects of some chemical substances on the other with the effect of light on the same substances (fading colors). Later (1807) in his extensive research in the field of acoustics, he tried to detect the emergence of electrical phenomena in the sound vibrations.
. The idea of a link between electrical and magnetic phenomena have emerged Oersted in 1812, but he had no conclusive evidence
. Eight years with great perseverance, he was searching for this link. Now the proof is evident.
July 21, 1820, Mr.. published a slim, all four-page brochure Oersted "Experiments on the operation of the electric conflict on a magnetic needle" (under "electric conflict", he understood the electric current - a concept introduced later).
. Oersted did not continue and did not develop their research, theory did not explain their
. It took two and a half months later, a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences A. M. Amps.
Nevertheless Oersted's great achievement was the establishment of the fact of the interaction of current and magnet. Its opening marked the beginning of a new field of physics - electromagnetism.
. Oersted's merits were appreciated: the two major Academy of Sciences awarded its highest awards: Royal Society of London - the Copley Medal, French Academy of Sciences - Gold Medal
. His name is called a unit of magnetic field.
Oersted worked until the last days of life. March 9, 1851 he died suddenly.
An outstanding scientist, but high scientific merit, left his contemporaries, and through them in subsequent generations of a remarkable memory of himself. It is exceptionally gentle nature and sensitivity to people. His house in Copenhagen was the cultural center, a gathering scholars, writers, philosophers. ": It was not only a great and rare scholar and thinker, but a great and rare man," - wrote about Oersted Danish scientist and poet, IA-K. Gauh in 1852
"The heart of a child and a deep philosopher" - said of Oersted former student of his at one time famous Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen.