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GTrres, Johann Joseph von

( German Catholic journalist, historian, secular teologapravlenie activities)

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Biography GTrres, Johann Joseph von
GTrres, Johann Joseph von (Grres, Johann Joseph von) (1776-1848), German Catholic writer, historian, theologian, secular. Born in Koblenz, 25 January 1776. In 1786-1793 he studied at the local high school, then independently studied medicine, science, history. In 1794 Koblenz in the left bank of the Rhine was captured by the French. At this time, GTrres became acquainted with the ideas of the French Enlightenment, welcomed the accession of the native land to the French Republic and shared ideas of the French Revolution (he was chairman of the club of the Jacobins in Koblenz). Came out of the Catholic Church and took up political journalism. Having been in 1798-1799 in Paris, GTrres lost interest in France, was disappointed in the revolution. Stopped journalistic activities and since 1800 has been a teacher of natural science in secondary school in Koblenz, and in 1806-1808 he taught at the post of private-docent at the University of Heidelberg. He met with German writers, 'Heidelberg Romantics' A. von Arnim and C. Brentano (the latter published 'newspaper for the hermits'), piqued his interest in folklore and mythology. In 1808 he returned to Koblenz, where in 1814-1816 he published a daily newspaper 'Raynisher Merkur' (antinapoleonovskoy direction), the first major political newspaper in Germany. Napoleon called 'Raynisher Merkur' 'fifth great power'. In his articles, published after the defeat of Napoleon, GTrres urged the victorious powers to grant freedom to the European nation-states, advocated the establishment of a unified Germany, for the equality of religions. Prussian censorship (Koblenz was the capital of the Prussian Rhineland) banned the newspaper because of its liberal orientation, . after the publication of brochures GTrres "Germany and the Revolution" (Teutschland und Revolution, . 1819) was forced to move to Strasbourg and then to Switzerland,

In exile GTrres reconciled with the Roman Catholic Church (1824), participated in the publication of a strictly Catholic Church magazine 'Catholic' ( 'Der Katholik'). The result of study of Christian mysticism became his book "St. Francis of Assisi - Il Trovatore" (Der Heilige Franziskus von Assisi, . ein Troubadour, . 1826), . "Emmanuel Swedenborg" (Emanuel Swedenborg, . 1827) and his main work "Christian Mysticism" (Die christliche Mystik, . 4 volumes, . 1836-1842),
. In 1827, King Ludwig I of Bavaria invited him to take a professorship of universal history and the history of literature, University of Munich. His house was going to the Christian-conservative circle, . which eventually included such famous scientists and cultural figures, . a church historian Ignaz von Dellinger, . Bishop Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler, . theologian Adam Mehler, . social philosopher Franz von Baader and 'father apprentices' Adolph Kolping,
. Been here a French journalist and politician Charles Forbes Montalembert and philosopher FR Lamennais. Mouthpiece cup GTrres became the magazine 'Eos' ( 'Eos'), and from 1838 - 'The Historical and political magazine for Catholic Germany' ( 'Historisch-politische Bltter fr das katholische Deutschland'). These publications have turned into important literary bodies emerging political movement of German Catholics, . speakers for the freedom of Germany and focused on the creation of 'Greater Germany' (after the revolution 1848/1849 supporters 'Greater Germany' insisted on the unification of all the public areas of compact residence of Germans, . ie,
. including Austria and others; supporters 'Little Germany' limited by the requirement to combine the purely German states).

An important stage in the life GTrres became acutely polemical book "Athanasius" (Athanasius, 1838). The reason for her writing the arrest of the Archbishop of Cologne in 1837, Baron von Droste Visheringa Prussian authorities, dissatisfied with the position of archbishop in the dispute about the sectarian mixed marriages. The book attracted the attention of the public to the incident (the total of its circulation exceeded 10 000 copies). It GTrres urged German Catholics to unite in the struggle for religious freedom, for political and civil equality of religions.

In his book "The Pilgrimage to Trier" (Die Wallfahrt nach Trier, 1854) GTrres opposed rationalism and for the reconciliation of divided Christian denominations

. In 1876, . the centenary of his birth GTrres, . Koblenz was founded 'behalf GTrres Society for the development and promotion of science in the Catholic spirit' ( 'Grres-Gesellschaft zur Pflege der Wissenschaften im katholischen Sinne', . currently 'Grres-Gesellschaft zur Pflege der Wissenschaft'), . which united the German Catholic scholars, . championed the 'kulturkampfe' idea of Catholicism,
. In 1941 the Nazis closed society, it was rebuilt in 1948 in Cologne. Community, . subdivided into 18 sections, . includes 4 research institutes (in the Vatican, . Jerusalem, . Madrid and Lisbon), . publishes collected works GTrres, . 'Historical Yearbook', . 'Yearbook of Philosophy', . 'Yearbook of Psychology, . psychotherapy and medical anthropology ', . Encyclopedic Dictionary of History, . policy, . religion, . Social Sciences - Shtaatsleksikon (Staatslexikon, . 7 th edition 1985-1995), . scientific journals, . series of books on history, etc.,

GTrres died in Munich on Jan. 29, 1848.

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