Jose Raul Capablanca( chess-player)
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Biography Jose Raul Capablanca
Capablanca, Jose Raul (Capablanca, Jose Raul) (1888 -1942). The third world champion (1921-1927). Born in Havana on Nov. 19, 1888. His father was a military. I got acquainted with chess in nearly five years, watching his father play. In the 13 won all the leading Cuban players and in 1901 won the match at the national champion J. Corso (+4-3 = 6). He was educated in New York, started attending the Manhattan Chess Club. In 1909 he called the match the champion of U.S. GF Marshall and won it with a convincing score of +8-1 = 4. The game was up to 8 wins. He made his debut in Europe at an international tournament in San Sebastian (1911), brought together, except for Lasker, all the best masters of that time, and the surprise of many defeats. It became clear that in the lungs parties Cubans in general has no equal. In the same year, sent a challenge the world champion Lasker, but talks about the match soon deadlocked.
In 1913 he joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cuba and was assigned to the consulate in St. Petersburg, where in 1914 took part in a big international tournament, which first met at the chessboard with Lasker. The competition consisted of two stages - predvaritelskogo Round Robin and dvuhkrugovogo finals for the first five in the light of preliminary results. In the first preliminary tournament Capablanca was a magnificent result of 8 points out of 10 (+6 = 4). Lasker and Tarrasch lagged by a half point. However, in the finals he lost a principled party of Lasker and Tarrasch in the next day, and eventually took the second place. Soon Berlin Capablanca and Lasker played a match of 10 batches of blitz. Best blitser world won with a score 6,5:3,5. During the war, Capablanca won 3 tournament in New York = (1915, 1916 and 1918), and in early 1919 with a score of 5:0 victory in Havana, the Yugoslavs B. Kostic. Then he went to Europe and won the tournament in Hastings 1919. The following year agreement was signed on the match with Lasker, who was held in 1921 in Havana. Capablanca won with a score of 4 = 10.
The first tournament in which the new, third world champion, met with their competitors, was in London, 1922. Capablanca started, scored 6 of 6, and eventually became the first, proving that he really is the strongest in the world. In second place was Alexander Alekhine, straggler and a half points. At this tournament champion invited a group of leading grandmasters designed them to sign an agreement on the rules of the world championship. Its main points are as follows: the match is played to 6 wins, without draws, prize fund should be 10 thousand dollars in gold terms. These rules have affixed their signature J. R. Capablanca, Alexander Alekhine, A. Rubinstein, E. Bogolyubov, R. Reti, G. Marö¨czy, M. S. Tartakower and Vidmar.
The next meeting of the world chess elite was New York, 1924, dvuhkrugovoy tournament in which the struggle for leadership was mainly between Lasker and the world champion. Capablanca defeated Lasker in one of two personal meetings, roughly finished, but could take a second and a half points behind the winner. And on the first Moscow International Tournament (1925), he was third, half a point behind the Lasker and 2 of the winner E. Bogolyubov. Capablanca celebrated his victory in New York in 1927, where he beat Alekhine, with whom he was soon to play a match on 2,5 points, but in the tournament Lasker did not participate.
In the match Alekhine - Capablanca (Buenos Aires, 1927) was considered the undisputed front-runner the world champion, especially after his success in New York, backed by a spectacular victory over challenger. Besides Alekhin had never managed to win over his opponent. However, the first batch brought a sensation: defeated challenger! The tense, two-month struggle took place with varying success, but at the finish Capablanca did not use all the chances and lost with a score of +3-6 = 25. According to the London Agreement, World Champion, lost, had the right during the year for a rematch. However, he leaned to the challenge, allowing Alekhin play the world championship match with Bogolyubov and avoid a rematch. It is forever tainted their relationship.
Then broke out the global crisis virtually buried the hopes of Capablanca rematch. At a tournament in Hastings (1930-1931), he takes the second place, half a point behind the M. Euwe. While the Dutchman has already entered into the world elite, and Capablanca decides to play with him a match of 10 parties, ending with a score of +2 = 8 in favor of ex-world champion.
Then Capablanca in a few years left Europe and only in 1934 participated in a tournament in Hastings, 1934-1935, taking 4 th place. Moscow (1935) Capablanca again fourth. It seems that the star Cuban nearing sunset. However, in late 1935 Alekhine Euwe suddenly loses the match, and probably this fact has injected new energy into Capablanca. Moscow (1936), he takes the first place, a point ahead of Botvinnik, and then at a tournament in Nottingham shares with him the first place. However, this rise was the last. Without much success, he played in a tournament in Semmering-Baden (1937) - 3-4 place, behind Keres and Robert P. Fine, fails on organized radio company of the Dutch AVRO tournament of eight (1938) - 7-th to last place.
In 1939 in Buenos Aires, Capablanca the first time in favor of the Cuban team at the World Chess Olympiad and shows the best result at the first board (+6 = 5). Died March 8, 1942 in New York, and was buried in Cuba.
Even during his lifetime Lasker said: 'I knew many players, but among them only one genius - Capablanca! His ideal - to win by maneuvering. Capablanca's genius is manifested in groping weak points of enemy positions. The slightest weakness is hidden from his keen eyes. "