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( German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1930)

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Biography FISCHER Hans
Fischer, Hans (Fischer, Hans) (1881-1945) (Germany). Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1930.
Born July 27, 1881 in the town of Hoechst-am-Main (Germany) in the family chemist Eigen Fisher, director of factories and firms 'Kalle' for the production of dyes, and Anna Gerdegen. After completing elementary school in Stuttgart, Wiesbaden received secondary education, which concluded in 1899. At the University of Lausanne studied chemistry and medicine, continued his studies at the University of Marburg, where in 1904 received a degree in chemistry and four years later and medicine.

After a medical practice in the second medical clinic in Munich Fisher all over in 1909 conducted experiments in chemistry under the direction of E. Fischer (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1902) in the First Berlin Chemical Institute. Here he studied the structure of complex carbohydrates and peptides.

Back in 1910 in Munich, he began to study the structure of bilirubin - a reddish-yellow pigment found in bile and hemin is chemically similar, and in 1911 turned to deciphering the structure of hemin.

Complex metal compounds, derivatives of porphyrins, which include hemin, bilirubin, and chlorophyll, commonly found in nature, comprising pigments blood and plants. Coloring matter of blood trying to allocate Leopold Gmelin (1788-1853) and Friedrich Tideman (1781-1861), Johannes Gerardus Mulder (1802-1880) and other chemists. Its common name 'ferriheme' proposed in 1853 by L. Teichmann.

Structural studies of hemin started Martselau Nentskim Wilhelm (1847-1901) in 1884, showed that it 'quite a lot of pyrrole'. It became clear that the structure of tetrapyrrole (porphyrin) is the basis of natural pigments such as bilirubin, hemin, and others. However, each pigment has a specific set of alternates and, in addition, specific combinations of porphyrin groups. Toll to one molecule of hemin contains 76 atoms. For such a large molecule laws of chemical combinations possible to calculate the number of structural variants, each of which may have completely different chemical properties.

The first structural formula was proposed by hemin Nentskim, but was far from the true structure. Hemin formula proposed in 1912, Kuster, was already close to the real molecule. Fisher wrote that 'the present state of science it should be seen essentially as the best expression of the structure of hemin'.

At that time, Fisher has worked in the Second Hospital of Munich, and then in the First Chemical Institute and the Physiological Institute of Frank O.. In 1913 Fisher became a lecturer in physiology.

Three years later, he - a professor of medical chemistry at the University of Innsbruck. The hardships caused by the outbreak of World howling Noah greatly hampered the conduct of pilot studies. In 1917 his work was interrupted as a result of complications after suffering a prior tuberculosis he removed a kidney. At the end of the war, he moved to Vienna University professor of organic chemistry, and in 1921 he was given the same post in the Technical University of Munich, where he worked until the end of his scientific activity.

In Munich, Fisher organized his own laboratory and developed a scientific research program of natural pigments.

That course of his experiments. First, the synthesis was carried out four possible etioporfirinov, certain derivatives of porphyrin are close in structure to the porphyrin in the hemin. Of these, based on the formula Kuster, he synthesized the 12 out of 15 possible mezoporfirinov, the structure of which was even closer to the structure of hemin, and are distinguished by the location of substituents in the porphyrin ring. It turned out that one of the 12 isomeric mezoporfirinov identical obtained from natural hemin splitting the last. And then Fisher got in several stages of hemin mezoporfirina.

In 1930 Fisher was awarded the Nobel Prize 'for studying the structure of hemin and chlorophyll, especially for the synthesis of hemin'.

Completing work on the synthesis of hemin, Fischer began to decipher the structure of bilirubin, which is also completed in 1931.

More Fisher engaged in a more complex object - chlorophyll. He determined the structure of chlorophylls a and b in 1939 and 1940, respectively. His future plans included the holding of the total synthesis of chlorophyll.

In 1960, chlorophyll was synthesized by Woodward (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1965).

A demanding teacher, Fisher felt a great responsibility for their students and helped them in every way. Although chemical studies have been his main occupation, he also enjoyed mountain climbing and skiing. His demand was tired from hard work, and climb the mountain was recreational. Books not like to write, considering that belongs to the laboratory chemist, not the desk.

As a fanatical explorer, Fisher suffered a deep inability to continue its work because of the Second World War.

From grief and despair following the destruction of its institutions in the bombing, 31 March 1945, he committed suicide.

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FREYDEBURG Hans Georg von (Freideburg)

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