KONDRATIEV Viktor( Russian physical chemist)
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Biography KONDRATIEV Viktor
Kondratiev, Viktor Nikolaevich (1902-1979), Russian physicist and chemist, one of the founders of a new direction in science - the study of elementary interaction of molecules in chemical reactions. Born November 1, 1902 in Rybinsk. In 1919 he graduated from the school in this city, in 1920 he entered the Physics and Mechanics Faculty of the Petrograd Polytechnic Institute. As a second year student, he became an assistant in the State Physical-Technical Institute X-ray, led by Ioffe. In 1924, after the institute he worked in the same - first as an assistant, and since 1934 a professor in the department of molecular spectroscopy and photochemistry. In 1925-1926 he was posted to Germany, . in the laboratory of Frank D. University of GцTttingen, . in 1928 - in Berlin University, . where a course of lectures leading physicists of the time, . specially organized for young talented scientists from different countries,
. From 1931 until the end of life led by the laboratory of elementary processes of the Institute of Chemical Physics. At the same time taught in the leading Moscow universities - Moscow State University, Physico-Technical and Engineering Physics Institute, Military Academy of Chemical Defense. In 1943, Kondratiev was a member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, in 1953 - Member of the Academy.
The first scientific work was devoted to the ionization Kondratieff polar molecules by electron impact, while for the registration of the products it was first used mass spectrometry. Turned out that the electrons not only ionize, and dissociate the molecules, ie. first observed elementary act, now called dissociative ionization. Then five years out of his work on the dissociation of nitrogen molecules in collisions with electrons, photodissociation of polar molecules, chemiluminescence and the nature of the reaction of alkali metal halide with. In 1927, Kondratiev, together with NN Semenov and Yu Khariton released his first book - "Electronic Chemistry", summarizing the main results of elementary reactions and basic phenomena in chemistry. Later six months, he wrote the classic work on the dissociation of diatomic molecules by photons. Throughout the development Semenov theory of branched-chain processes Kondratiev was executed a number of fundamental works on the experimental verification of the basic assumptions of the theory (1931-1945). This applies primarily experimental evidence, . that the concentration of active centers of reaction chains - hydroxyl radical and atomic hydrogen - in the rarefied flame of a mixture of H2 with O2 in 1012 times higher than the thermodynamic equilibrium value in these conditions,
. This discovery pointed to the 'chemical' rather than thermal origin of the hydroxyl and directly confirms the theory of chain reactions of the existence in the reaction zone of high concentrations of active particles - radicals. To determine the true concentration of free hydroxyl Kondratyev were developed and introduced into the arsenal of the kinetic experiment, the method of the linear absorption, . dramatically increased the sensitivity of conventional absorption spectroscopy, . and the method of catalytic recombination of atoms,
. The works in this series formed the basis for the transition from the formal scheme of chemical reaction to a particular chemical mechanism, to study the kinetics of elementary.
In 1946-1958 Kondratiev was entrusted with important works on applied kinetics, associated with military subjects. In the same period, he actively worked on theoretical problems of the kinetics, summarizing the accumulated material in the world of science. The result of these generalizations was the fundamental work "Kinetics of chemical gas reactions, largely defined the trends of chemical kinetics of gas-phase reactions in the leading laboratories in different countries.
Since the late 1950's led by three cycles, Kondratiev experimental work. One of them was associated with accurate measurements of rate constants of reaction of CO with oxygen atoms, the elementary acts of decomposition of ozone and other reactions. Second cycle - it works on the kinetics of gas dynamics, to study the reactions in the sound and supersonic flows, the mechanism hemoionizatsii and vibrational relaxation. The third cycle is connected with the search for new physical methods of measurement of the rate constants of elementary processes, the study of mechanisms of complex reactions.
In addition to monographs, Kondratyev wrote several textbooks and teaching aids. In 1927, together with AF and Walter Y. Khariton it was compiled book of problems in physics, which went through 12 editions and in 1934 released a textbook "The structure of atoms and molecules," in 1946, and then a second edition in 1959 - "The structure of atoms and Molecular.
In 1966 the scientist was awarded the gold medal B. Lewis of the International Institute of combustion, in 1967 - gold medal Hoffman. From 1966-1969 was president of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
Kondratiev died in Moscow on Feb. 22, 1979.