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Adolphe Appia

( Swiss painter and theoretician of the theater)

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Biography Adolphe Appia
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Appiah, ADOLF (Appia, Adolphe) (1862-1928), Swiss artist and theoretician of the theater.
Born September 1, 1862 in Geneva. It was to his discovery of music, which for eight years (1880-1888) studied at the conservatories in Geneva, Paris, Leipzig and Dresden, and then trained in theaters in Dresden and Vienna. The impetus to search for new principles of design performances gave him the impression of productions at Bayreuth music drama "Parsifal" (1882) and "Tristan and Isolde" (1886) by Richard Wagner. Appiah was struck by the aesthetic mismatch between what the music sounded in his favorite composer, and visual appearance of the performances, which suggested decorators. The young musician and artist heard in the works of the composer's images of different kind and began to develop them in their sketches, . scoping notes to individual operas and in the literature "Stage embodiment of Wagner's drama" (1892), . "Music and its stage incarnation" (1895-1897),

Appiah has sought to develop a structure of visual design as an art space, which would be adequate to the structure of music as an art temporary. He wrote: 'time is expressed in space: movement. Space is expressed in time: different durations, dictating traffic '. Hence the task of the artist - to organize space and first floor of the stage (platform, stairs, ascents, descents, etc.) to the rhythmic movement of the actors. He believes that the three-dimensional shapes of a moving actor needs the real volume of three-dimensional space, freed from the painting, the very principle which chuzheroden and 'contra-stage'. Stage light, forming the space to identify the volumes bear a variety of vision, creating a complex chiaroscuro, which varies in accordance with the change of musical and dramatic action spectacle.

Originally from the experience of romantic theater. It was felt in the stylistic manner of some sketches of 1890 and to "Das Rheingold" to "Valkyrie", and "Tristan and Isolde". However, they apparently influence symbolism. For Wagner's music dramas suggested otherwise scenic environment goes beyond and Romanticism (with its requirements of 'local color'), and symbolism. He believed that the action should take place in prehistoric times and among certain powerful praprirody. The artist created an image as if the universe - the whole world, when he was just beginning to emerge from the chaos of the faults, of accumulations of huge masses and boulders. In this world, still has not appeared even vegetation. Natural vertical in it - mountains, rocks, rocks, petrified volcanic rocks. In the case where the action took place 'in the woods', the artist showed the 'forest' in the form of high-power pylons, stalactites, 'grown' inside a huge cave, and carrying the weight of its stone arch.

These forms would have arisen as a result of thousands of years of evolutionary changes. And the light here - not the sun and moon, and of unknown origin. A certain idea of light in all its gradations: from limiting brightness through a complex range of half-tones of light and shade to the pitch darkness.

As if born from the womb of this world, the thumbnails appear Appiah form, created by intelligent beings. What is this creature? Perhaps, . Representatives of some pre-human, . unearthly civilization, . formed from huge stone slabs grand launching pads for their spacecraft? When Appiah came on the sketches and architectural forms of human origin, . They reminded urban development at the dawn of human civilization: the area, . paved flat rectangular stone slabs, . solemn rhythm of steps, . Uneven ground, . kuboobraznye pylons,

Theater essence images Appiah were a kind of pedestal for filing expressive characters. He formed an open space to world harmony (despite the monumental), calculated on the epic enlarged rhythm of the character, the broad and free sound of his voice and plastic.

The road to the stage for Appiah opened E.Zhak-Dalcroze, the founder of the Institute of rhythmic gymnastics in Hellerau, near Dresden. They met in 1906. Appiah interested in using the expression of music in the plastic movements, which developed one of the professors of the Geneva Conservatory. And he made a series of sketches of "rhythmic space" (1909-1910), which suggested that Jaques-Dalcroze different options for the scenic environment. In their base - a combination of broad-free Uneven areas and connecting them to the gentle flight of stairs, ramps, etc.. This architecture (in contrast to earlier drafts praarhitektury Wagner series) was created as an effort would be reasonable, civilized beings. Predominating clear geometric forms, born of memories of the ancient Egyptian and Greek classics, and asserted itself as an equal among the elements of earth and sky, light

. In 1911 the Institute of Jacques-Dalcroze project Appiah were constructed, and scenic space in it - the design, . on the steps and gatherings where the unfolding of the submission of "Orpheus and Eurydice" Gluck: first track on the hero's descent into Hell (1912), . and then the entire opera (1913),
. Cooperation Appiah and Jacques-Dalcroze continued in June 1914 at the Swiss festival, where they showed a festive presentation, and in 1920 staged on the story "Echo and Narcissus" at the Geneva Institute

. Staged-Appiah scenographic ideas for dramas of Wagner realized on the stage in his life only in 1923 in a performance of Tristan and Isolde "(Milan" La Scala "), . which was carried out based on sketches, . painted by special order of conductor Toscanini A.,
. And yet - when Appiah responded to a request by the young director O. Valterlina and sent him his drawings and plans, on which he put in Basel Das Rheingold "(1924) and" Valkyrie "(1925).

However, not all these performances, sketches and projects have had a significant impact on stage 20 in quest.

Died Feb. 29, 1928 in Niyone, Switzerland.

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