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Roman B. Goul

( prose writer, essayist, critic, memoirist, social activist, editor of 'New Journal')

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Biography Roman B. Goul
Goul, Roman B. (1896-1986) - writer, novelist, essayist, critic, memoirist, social activist, editor of 'New Journal'. Born 13 (1) in August 1896 in Kiev. In his childhood he lived in Penza, where he graduated from Classical High School. Often visited the estate of his grandfather, the leader of the nobility, in the provincial town of Kerensky, it felt 'the charm and joy of the world: where everything is firmly happy' ( 'Illustrated Russia', 1939, 25). He visited with his parents in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy. In 1914 he entered Moscow University's Faculty. I got carried away philosophy, listening to the course "Introduction to the philosophy of" a well-known culture expert and legal scholars Ivan Ilyin.

In 1916, Gul was mobilized and sent to the Moscow officer's school. Served in a reserve regiment in Penza, and after the February Revolution, was appointed to the Southwestern Front. In 1918, joined the volunteer army, with the Kornilov Shock Regiment did Ice March. When news came of the death of General Kornilov, Gul gave a report on the resignation and went to Kiev. Was again mobilized, this time the administration Hetman Skoropadsky. Soon he was captured by Petliurists. In December 1918, rescued from captivity, the German command, from January 1919 he lived in Germany in the camps for displaced persons, and then worked in the logging. "The idea to write all that I have experienced and seen in the Civil War - recollected Gul - took root in me: Since I wrote my first book" Ice March ", which later became known in the literature about the Civil War (" I took Russia "t. 1,. 43).

In 1920 he moved to Berlin, working in the magazine 'Life'. It was his first appearance in the press (excerpts from "Ice campaign"). In Berlin, Gul met with writers, poets and critics who came from Soviet Russia, Germany - with Pasternak, Yesenin, Zamyatin, Fedin, Pilnyak, Tynyanov. Even more numerous were the meetings with emigrants: Khodasevich, . Remizov, . Osorgin, . Stepun, . Vysheslavtsevym, . White, . Eichenwald, . Otsup, . Sasha Black, . Ivanovo (which much later, . the fifties, . Gul strongly supported us and published his with him, "Correspondence across the ocean"), . Tsvetaeva (cm,
. her letter to Goulue in 'new journal', 1959, 58). Gul visited regularly at meetings of the Berlin House of Arts, and thus the circle of his literary acquaintances extremely enlarged. Moreover, contribute to the work from 1922 editorial secretary critical-bibliographical journal 'New Russian book'. In the NRC published literary critiques Gulya and book reviews Bryusov, Gippius, Zoshchenko, Pilnyak, Shklovsky, A. Tolstoy, and others. contemporary authors. Simultaneously, he works in the newspaper 'eve'. Since mid-1923 until mid-1924, Gul - editor 'Literary Supplement' this newspaper. His works were published in other periodicals in Berlin ( 'The Voice of Russia', 'Russian emigre', 'Time').

The result of familiarity with A. White Gul was the book "Sex in the works" (1923). Then went out a separate edition story about Emigrants "in the scattering mere". Emigrant experience has the content and other books - "Life on the Fuchs (1927). Released in next year's book "White on Black" is the essays on Russian refugees in Africa. She wrote on a story by an emigrant who returned from Africa to Europe. Published in 1929 novel about terrorists B. Savinkov "General Bo" translated into German, French, Spanish, English, Polish, Lithuanian and Latvian. Many years later, when Gul had lived in America, he rewrote the novel and released it under the name "Azef" (1959). 'In the first place in the novel Azef and Savinkov: - wrote in comments to this book, poet E. Tauber. - Came a new man, ceased to be a man: Azef - just a car, perfect and calculatedly working in its favor: A deadly pattern of clandestine life is hard to think '(VAW, 1959, 58). Life historical figures as novelist Gulya interested in the future. Roman "Skif" (1931) is devoted to the fate of the anarchist Bakunin, M., and covers the years of the reign of Nicholas. This novel Ghoul is back in the fifties, thoroughly revised and published under the title "Skiff in Europe"

. Three books documenting and art essays, . written in the thirties, . represent a series of portraits of prominent Bolsheviks (the military and security officers) Tukhachevsky, . Voroshilov, . Budyonny, . Blucher, . Kotovsky, . Dzerzhinsky, . Menzhinsky, . Peters, . Lacis, . Berries,
. In the book "Dzerzhinsky" (1936) traced the origin and rampant red terror. Publish the book in Nazi Germany Goulue not allowed (it was in Paris). 'In the totalitarian Nazi Germany, I could not psychologically and emotionally to live: - he recalls the first volume of memoirs, I took to Russia (with. 324) - With all I wanted to break out of this brown totalitarianism to freedom '. When Gul was ready to flee Germany, he was arrested. In the guilt he was charged with the German edition of the novel, General Bo. Gul was sent to the Oranienburg concentration camp, was released a month later with the explanation that he was arrested 'by mistake'. Details of the stay in prison Gul, already in Paris, described in the book "Oranienburg. What I saw in the Nazi concentration camp "(1937).

Living in France, Gul has worked in the 'Latest News',' Contemporary Annals', 'Illustrated Life "and others. More than half a year spent in London, participating in the production of the film based on the novel "General Bo. On the same novel was set in Paris, Russian theater piece "Azef". At the beginning of World War II, Gul left Paris in the free zone in the south of France. He worked as a farm laborer on the farm: 'my wife and I decided to become a very real peasants' ( 'New Journal', 1986, 164). In Paris, he returned two months after the end of the war. Here he concludes his autobiographical book "Kon red". In 1946 she appeared in 'new journal', which, starting from the time of first publication, forty years of life are linked Gulya. In his review of a separate edition of "Horse chestnut" Ivanov defined features of the book: 'This is a story of life of the author, woven with the history of' fateful moments' Russia and the world. This conscious judge the world, about himself, about his past, calling for a split, dialogue with his soul. And the dialogue of the soul with the world '(Ivanov. Third Rome. Fiction. Articles. Tenaflay, USA, 1987,. 321). In 1948, Gul poses in Paris, political, anti-totalitarian group 'Russia's national movement', which published the magazine 'People's true' (editor - R. Gul), and in 1950 moved to the United States, continues to edit it. Since 1951, Gul became the executive secretary of 'new journal', considered him 'the best Russian journals not only overseas but in the whole world' (Goul. "My biography - VAW, 1986, 164, with. 31). The reason for such a strong approval was the concept of freedom, especially freedom of creative. Since 1959 after the death of M. Karpovich, many years headed the 'New Journal', Gul became the chief editor. This work lasted 27 years and under his editorship came 105 volumes. Summarize this work - to speak of a half stories 'new journal', about 3000 publications in the thirty thousand pages. The set of works has developed into a regular value of journal publication and has a long-term possession of the Russian literature, historiography, philosophy, journalism. Editing of the most prestigious journal in abroad it is understood as' All-Russia deal 'and in his later claimed:' Culture of Old Russia always was with me and continues to live in me. Therefore, feeling himself a Russian emigre, probably based primarily on this' ( 'A new Russian word', 13 August 1985).

Gul was one of the most active sponsors of the journal. His articles, essays, reviews found in 130 rooms. The best essays were collected in his book "Odvukon" (1973) and "Odvukon 2" (1982). The meaning of this name, Gul explained in the preface: "After the Bolshevik Revolution, Russian literature went odvukon. Part of it remained in his country, as part of the emissions in the West, in a free country, becoming a Russian emigre literature. So - odvukon - Russian literature lived half a century '. Here are essays and notes on Pasternak, Akhmatova, Klyuev, Ehrenburg, Bulgakov, Okudzhava, and together with the writers and poets abroad - of Ivanovo, Tsvetaeva, Weidle, Adamovich, Odoevtsevoy, Chinnov, Sedykh Berberova, Rzhevsky, Narokove. In response to an essay about Georgi Ivanov wrote last Goulue: 'Your article is brilliant and deafening talent: No one on the poetry can not write but very few who knew how to do'.

In the 'new journal' published memoirs Gulia "I took Russia". A separate edition of the first volume, subtitled Russia in Germany came out in 1981, the second (Russia France) - in 1984, the third (Russia in America), published posthumously - in 1989. In an interview with 'New Russian word' (1 August 1985), . Gul identified the problem, . has set itself, . working on a trilogy of memoirs: 'I wanted to give the art-historical sketch of the entire emigration: I wanted to capture, . What a great cultural force ',
. Critics called him a chronicler of the Russian diaspora. "Gul has always been irrepressible inquisitive: he is vitally interested in any encountered on his path of life a man, he notices and remembers the tight, any phenomenon, which was witnessed. Soviet and emigre writers and artists, 'shattered fragments' of the Russian intelligentsia, theaters and print the Russian diaspora, nighthawk - former colonels and generals. All these people live in his artistic memoir prose and in his chronicle chronicles' (BN Filippov. "In memory of RB Gulia - VAW, 1986, 164, with. 10).

Umer Gul 30 June 1986 in New York.

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Roman B. Goul, photo, biography Roman B. Goul  prose writer, essayist, critic, memoirist, social activist, editor of 'New Journal', photo, biography
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