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Robert Desnos

( French poet)

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Biography Robert Desnos
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Desnos, Robert (Desnos, Robert) (1900-1945), French poet 20 in. Born July 4, 1900 in Paris, in a modest family wealth and his father was deputy mayor of his district and authorized to supply poultry and game in the Parisian market (Les Halles). After the municipal schools in 1913 enrolled in the Lyc?e Turgot, showed no zeal for classes. At sixteen, left high school and family, decided to start an independent life. After a short time worked in the shop chandlery packagers. In 1916 in the journal "Literature" (Litt?rature) published his first story - a description of his own dreams, and in 1917 in the "Tribune of Young" (La Tribune des Jeunes) - my first poem. In 1919, he served in the publishing house, Jean de Bonnfona first as secretary and later manager. In the same year, met with poet Louis de Gonzaga, Frick, who introduced him to the modernist literary circles, struck up friendships with the poet Benjamin Pere, introduced him to the works of Dadaists. From March 1920 to January 1922 he served in the French army, first in Chaumont, then to Morocco, wrote a large number of poems.

In 1922 he joined the Surrealist group, headed by A. Breton, whose slogan was the liberation of the poetic language of the control of reason: for them the true poetry could be produced only in a state of twilight sleep, intoxication or delirium. He became one of the major figures in surreal conversations 'automatic writing'. In 1922-1923 intensively experimented in the field of poetic language. In 1924 it published a poem in prose "Mourning for Mourning" (Deuil pour Deuil). Published in the journal "surrealist revolution" (La R?volution Surr?aliste) poems, pamphlets, novels, paintings, imbued with the spirit of the surrealist revolt. Penetrated modest wages - accounting clerk in the department of medical publications of the publishing house Baier, editorial secretary, advertising agent "Industry Yearbook, the cashier in the newspaper Paris-Soir. In 1926-1929 worked in journalism, worked in the newspaper Paris-Soir, Le Soir, Paris-Matinal and Merle. In 1927 he published an essay "Freedom or Love" (La Libert? ou l'amour), which the court Seine was subjected to the ban for 'immorality'. In 1928 participated in the Congress of the Latin (Roman), the press in Havana (Cuba); carried away bearing angle and contributed to its dissemination in France. Negative attitude to join the Communist Party, his fellow surrealists A. Breton, L. Aragon, P. Eluard and B. Pere, because I thought surrealism inconsistent with the policy.

. In 1930, a decisive break with surrealism, an act of farewell which was written by him "The Third Manifesto of Surrealism" (Troisi?me Manifeste du Surr?alisme) sharply criticized A. Breton
. In the same year published a poetry collection "The joint residence and property" (Corps et Biens), which included the poem, created between 1919 and 1929, and then his best lyrical poem "The night of nights without love" (The Night of Loveless Nights). He left journalism, only occasionally wrote chronicles and reports for the leading literary magazine Nouvelle Revue Francaise "(Nouvelle Revue Franaise).

In 1932-1939 he worked on radio, led to the transfer of a variety of topics; broadcast to a wider audience poetry, short stories, plays. Considered the popularization of artistic works of one of its main. In 1933 in the musical design voiced his "lament about Fantomas" (a poem of twenty-five verses) - a peculiar result of Worship, . R. Desnos has experienced, . from childhood, . this literary character M. Allen (thanks to his efforts Fantomas became a hero? 1 surrealism),

In the first half of 1930 almost did not publish poetry, except the prophetic poem "headless" (Les Sans cou), saw the light in 1934. At the same time wrote a huge number of scenarios, not popular filmmakers, only in 1944, P. Tryual would make a film of his screenplay "Good afternoon, ladies, good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen".

Since the mid 1930's under the influence of the looming threat of fascism in France and the Spanish Civil War with the active involvement in social and political struggle, became a member of the Association of Revolutionary Writers and Artists and vigilantes. He returned to the literary work by joining a new 'sister' period of his life, full of faith in people. His poetry is all the more folklorizirovalas, tuned to the rhythm of ancient folk songs (a collection of "Open Doors" - Portes battantes, 1936).

Since the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939, mobilized and sent to the south of France. In the days of defeat (May-June 1940) is back in German-occupied Paris. Openly opposed the collaborators and those who put up with the national humiliation. From 1942 - in the resistance movement, joined the group, united around the newspaper Komba. However, P. Eluard, L. Aragon, etc.. worked in the underground 'Midnight Publishers' based P. de Leskyurom and Vercors. In 1942-1944 published poetry collection "Heritage" (Fortunes), . "Waking" (Etat de veille), . "Country" (Contr?e), . "Bathing with Andromeda" (Le Bain avec Androm?de), . "Thirty songs, fables for obedient children" (Trente Chantefables pour les enfants sages),
. His poem "night watchman" (Le Veilleur du Pont-au-Change), has become, along with "Freedom" by P. Eluard, a hymn of the Resistance.

February 23, 1944 on a tip-off was captured by the Gestapo and imprisoned in Fresnes. March 20 transferred to Compiegne in a camp for political prisoners, wrote a poem called "Land of Compi?gne" (Sol de Compi?gne). April 27 deported to Germany, went through Auschwitz, Buchenwald, and Flossenburg Fleha; behaved extraordinarily courageous, assisted other prisoners tried to protect them from bullying guards. April 14, 1945 in connection with the evacuation camps Fleha sent with a party of prisoners in the south-east of the fortress Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia). May 3 when the Soviet troops and the Czech guerrilla groups SS guard ran. June 4 R. Desnos, exhausted and sick with typhus, was detected in one of the huts Czech student J. Stunoy, a devotee of surreal poetry, which remained with him the last days of his life. Poet died at Terezin June 8, 1945. J. Stuna ferried to France, his "Last Poem" (Le dernier Po?me), which he dedicated to his wife.

R. Desnos belongs to the galaxy of poets and reformers of the first half of the 20 century. Passing through the surrealistic revolt and managed to retain links with the best artistic traditions of the past. His love for classical forms of poetry (for which he reproached Surrealists) are incompatible with new content, which he opened in his poetic 'inspiration'. R. Desnos's poems, which, according to A. Breton, 'came the closest to surrealism', always available, even in the era of 'automatic writing'. He perfectly realized surreal slogan 'to return it to its roots'. The play on words, search their etymology, the unusual context is not sealed desnosovsky verse, but rather, made it an open and transparent.

R. Desnos fits into the tradition of European Romanticism - for it is characterized by rebelliousness, the cult of love, interest in the medieval legend and myth, mystery and fascination with the fantastic, unusual characters. On the other hand, he - the singer of everyday. His poetic world - a world of ordinary people understood and loved ones he cares and joys. Admirer A. Rimbaud, Lotreamona and G. Apollinaire, he drew extensively from the treasury of folk art. Born between the Bastille and the Saint-Martin, . where every stone speaks of the history, . next to the famous Parisian market ( 'belly of Paris ") and the Place de Greve, . enshrines the memory of the executed, . he absorbed the atmosphere of Parisian streets and soaked it his poetry.,

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