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( The writer, teacher, doctor)

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Biography KORCHAK Janusz
Korczak, Janusz (1878-1942) (real name - Goldschmidt, Henryk). Writer, teacher, doctor. Born July 22, 1878, in Warsaw, the son of a famous lawyer. Henrik is under twelve years old, when, suddenly went bankrupt, sick, lost his reason and his father died. Henrik, continuing to learn in high school, becomes his tutor in wealthy homes. He earns a living tutor, helping his mother and sister. Already in the school diary, he writes: 'I feel, I focus on the unknown forces that cock shaft of light, and light that will shine my last breath. I feel I'm close to to get out of the abyss of the soul purpose and happiness'.
Not yet finished high school, Henrik spoke fluently Polish, Jewish and Russian languages. It is well known German and French.

In 1898, Henrik Goldschmidt graduated from Russian school and became a student of Medical Faculty of Warsaw University. Then, Warsaw was a part of Russia Empire. Entered university, Henrik continues tutoring job, helping my sister get higher education. From the first course begins active journalistic work under a pseudonym - Janusz Korczak.

As repeatedly emphasized himself Korczak, his literary talent has shaped the great Russian literature of the XIX century. Especially work of Chekhov, whose talent Korczak was 'literally mesmerized'.

In 1904, Korczak finished university and started work as a physician, a pediatrician at a children's hospital in Warsaw. Many years later, he writes: 'The hospital showed me how dignified, mature and wise child knows how to die'. In the same 1904 Korczak involved in Russian-Japanese war as a field hospital doctor. Often risking his own life to save many wounded. On return from the war Korczak again working in a children's hospital.

In 1905 comes the first story Korczak - "Child of Living", which brought the author's first success and deserved fame. Writer's work becomes an integral part of life Korczak. In one series of work in children's clinics.

Every day, for seven years, Korczak tirelessly not only heals the body but the soul of children. Makes everything possible and impossible to protect children from loneliness and despair, pain and unbearable humiliation. Sick children Korczak perceived as the most 'disadvantaged and crucified class'.

Once in the children's clinics in Paris and London, and comparing them with Russia, Korchak feels no sense of shame passing. That you are abroad, the young doctor to write: 'The slave has no right to have children. Polish Jew under the yoke of the king's. It affected me as suicide. Willpower and perseverance, I went through life, which seemed to me messy, lonely and a stranger: Son started giving me the idea of serving children and their case '.

Korchak one of the first tried to take the place of children, not just the fate of the downtrodden, but are in humble dependence on adults. He simply said, and repeatedly confirmed in practice that treats sick children, as equals, and is ready to share all of their suffering.

With remarkable consistency and determination Korczak enters the path of reformism unsettled world, not only as a pediatrician, but also as a writer, journalist, social activist. And the main support and joy to favorites arduous path to becoming Korczak infinite trust and cherished hopes of children. Getting started Korchak sees the radical transformation of children's education. And convincingly declares: 'We will reform the world - it means reforming the education'.

Korchak not yet thirty, but he has a rare talent finds himself in three major human manifestations, directly addressed to children: 'a doctor, teacher and clown'. Specifically and figuratively: as a doctor, not only as a pediatrician, but also a great psychologist, a true healer of souls. Pedagogical talent Korczak has been confirmed inventive and wise organization of children's camps, which subtly and unobtrusively Korczak patiently and thoughtfully helps children build their own state, in which all on equal. Finally, an interesting way manifested his gift of a clown-producer. Korczak is the same inventor and invisible light conductor countless games in which children acquire the long-awaited self-expression and emancipated.

To judge a combination of such rare qualities in one person may be on the books Korczak - "School of Life" (1907-1908), "Glory" (1913), stories of "Bobo", "Confessions of a butterfly" and "Fateful Week" (1914). And just as the works of his pupils.

In 1907 and 1908 respectively Korczak was training as a children's summer colonies, where the main contingent are orphans and children from low-income Jewish families. We think that's when it formed the main choice of profession: The best evidence of what became his book - "lap-dogs, and Ioski Srul" - 1910. And "Yuz'ko, Yasko and Frank" - 1911. In 1912 Korczak actually refuse medical career, and became director of the reorganized 'orphanages', which manages more than thirty years, until the end of life. Intermittently falling on the First World War and the Revolution in Russia.

In 1914 the First World War, and Korchak, a four-year intern becomes a field hospital of the Russian army. In the bloody years of the World War Korchak again and again saves lives. Four years will Korczak in wandering along the roads of war. From East Prussia to Ternopol. In spring 1917 Korczak seconded to work as a doctor in the Polish and Ukrainian orphanages. For a year he lived in Kiev, where he met with the famous Polish campaigner - Mary Falskoy. After the war, together with Korczak Falskoy organizes the Warsaw orphanage 'Our House'.

It was in terrible years of war is born one of the main pedagogical books Korczak - "How to love a child" (1918). The book, which became largely the author's credo. The essence of his thinking about the child and childhood.

The book How to love a child has dealt a crushing blow to moldy pedagogy. 'Children are not - there are people - claimed Korczak. - But with a different scale of the concepts, otherwise stock of experience, in other pursuits, a game of feelings'. Terrible years of war only confirmed Korczak grandiose plans for a radical rethinking of world views children as individuals, not less complicated than adults. And the strongest possible revision in the methodology of education and development of future individuals

. 'One of the most egregious errors - consider that pedagogy is the science of the child, not of man: In the realm of the senses the child than adult strength, for it is not worked out braking: In the area of intelligence at least equal to them, lacking only experience'

Himself Korczak never with children not lisp, not catering to their level of thinking. And 'not pressured authority', and talked with kids about the most serious and complex matters on an equal footing, superb owning 'their language', even with the most 'underdeveloped and frankly ignorant'. Children, in turn, paid Korchak boundless confidence, admiration and shrill, full of love revelations.

Throughout his life a fantastic teacher-creator Korchak constantly done by a free and harmonious development of the internal forces and abilities of each of your pets. Persistently, but very gently fired for every boy and girl to 'goodness, beauty and freedom'. With incredible ingenuity to help children get rid of the souls of conformity and self-centeredness, gain in independence and self-esteem.

Korchak not only tirelessly argued the injustice of society towards children. He is bright and talented confirmed their thoughts and demands of daily business, interesting books, articles of extraordinary, original broadcasts on Polish radio.

In 1918, Korczak finally returns to Warsaw. In the twenty years that have fallen between the two world wars, Korczak is a think tank and soul of the two shelters - 'Our House' and 'House of Orphans ", which creates a kind of childish republic, tiny pockets of equality and justice.

Love for children, immense talent, a phenomenal performance and an amazing will help to create a refuge Korchak goodness and light for the most disadvantaged and needy children in Warsaw.

Doing daily quiet heroism, Korchak deeds confirms one of his most recent speech:: 'I do not exist in order to be loved and admired me, but to the very act and to love. No duty to help those around me, and I myself shall care for the world and man '.

In addition to the specific work with children, Korczak manages to translate his experience into book. The best of them: "educational moments" (1919), "On the school newspaper" (1921), program book - "The child's right to respect" (1929), "Rules of Life" (1930), "a playful pedagogy" (1939).

Korczak teaches at the Institute of Special Education and the Free Polish University. Working on the Polish radio, under the pseudonym of the old doctor, he becomes not just a pet, and the main advisor for the tens of thousands of listeners.

Despite growing anti-Semitism of militant nationalists in prewar Poland, offered to go to Palestine Internationalist Korczak, who prided himself on his Jewish heritage, meets the firm's refusal.

The present event in the world literature are new books Korczak - Bankruptcy young Jack "(1924)," When I become a little again "(1925)," Kite-magician "(1935)," Stubborn boy. Life of Louis Pasteur "(1938).

A special place among the books Korczak takes duologue King Matiush I "and" King Matiush on a deserted island "(1923) This masterpiece Korchak brought worldwide fame and take a worthy place among the best philosophical tales of humanity.

Parable of the noble boy-king, Matiushe I, has won millions of hearts of both children and adults on the planet Earth. And he trembling Matiush, with a good heart, always open for the lonely and needy, has become a symbol of selflessness and kindness for many young souls. But the fate of Matiusha largely shone through and the life of the Korczak.

Dilogy Korczak several times reprinted and reprinted again in our country. The present phenomenon in the theatrical life and became a great performance of "King Matiush I", staged at the Central Children's Theater, the brilliant director Pyotr Fomenko

. Two decades in a row wise and well-wishers selflessly makes the process of knowing the world for children in an exciting chain of games: Children, . led Korczak, . feel young wizards, . even when you have to deal with so few attractive things, . as cleaning, . implementation of lessons, . various duty, . washing dishes,

Korczak never tire of repeating: 'Childhood - the foundation of life. Without serene, filled with childhood, and the subsequent life would be flawed: The child - a scientist in the laboratory they bend their will and intellect to solve difficult problems'.

Essence, the core system of education in Korchak - a long process of awakening and development in the child needs to self-awareness, self-control and the will to self-improvement.

Korchak clamoring for recognition of equivalence of the child's personality and self-worth, recognition of his right to individuality

. And how relevant and prophetic were the words Korczak relatively mindless pressure of society on children: "The state requires that children of official patriotism, . Church - a dogmatic belief, . School - unquestioning repetition of doubtful truths, . selfishness minded and arrogant parents - unconditional subordination: The result of such 'education' can only be a worthless mediocrity ',

And confirmation. Sincere words of one young pets Korczak, remembers how repugnant to him the requirement to write school essays: 'How awful: I never write the truth, but always only what is told in school'.

Special role played in the 'House of Orphans', conceived and established Korczak various show awards and promotion to children. And of course celebrations. Often, spontaneous, unusual, improvised. 'Feast of the First Snow' or 'Feast of the longest day', when you can not sleep all night.

With what rapture plunged Korczak played on city children sonorous tumult of the forest, iridescent shallows of rivers, heady smells of iridescent forbs fields. Days, held outside, in the village, to become wards Korczak, concrete, tangible happiness. Admiring and shaken babies, leaving the favorite places, builds a nest for storks and left a message: 'Let the birds dwell in them, when the arrive next year. Let them be happy in Mihaluvke how happy we are '.

For the first time in the history of pedagogy Korczak creates a 'House of Orphans' elected Sejm child, a friendly court and a judicial council. The main tasks of the Sejm and child friendly court was not coercion, and raising awareness. Above all, valued the ability to think, the ability to treat a critically.

Friendly Court, ninety-five cases out of a hundred, acquitted. Forgive, forgive, forgive! To understand and forgive - these are the leitmotif of children's court.

Sam Korczak had the courage and wisdom to repeatedly submit themselves to the children's court: "When a girl wrongly suspected of stealing. When the heat of the moment had insulted the judge. When, unable to restrain himself, put the boy up to mischief out of the bedroom '.

Once the court has applied to Korchak seventy-first article: 'The court forgives, because the defendant is sorry that he did so'. Three times was applied to the twenty-first article: 'The Court finds that the defendant has the right to do so:'

. 'I categorically say, . - Wrote to Korczak, . - That these few cases were the cornerstone of my re -, . as a new 'constitutional' educator, . which does not offend the children not only because, . what is good for them is, . but because an institution, . which protects children from arbitrary, . arbitrariness and despotism educators',

Korczak created and 'Small Psheglend', the world's first printed newspaper is not for children, and children themselves, protect children. In addition to pioneering the newspaper, which has gained enormous popularity in the children's audience, Korchak wanted to Children was founded as much theater as well as for adults. The same number of concert halls and galleries, with works of child artists.

Korczak came up with interesting lessons on samoizgnaniyu laziness and stupidity. He suggested a game-system responses to the questions: why I do not know and why. Inspired high school students on a daily reincarnation, if only for half an hour, the most intelligent, educated person:

We Janusz Korczak was not his wife and children. All he gave himself a stranger, far disadvantaged children. In the damage and its great literary gift.

When Hitler invaded Poland and was occupied Warsaw, Korczak stayed with their wards.

In 1940 the Germans arrested. Several months Korczak sat in jail 'Paviak', from where he bought his former students.

At the world-famous writer Korczak an opportunity to leave the Nazi-occupied Poland.

But Korczak returns to 'House of Orphans', who was already on the territory of the Warsaw Ghetto.

Shy short man, 'the old doctor', with children's blue eyes, had a titanic will. Shook the world with his last act, he gained the unconditional right to be called the greatest teacher in the history of mankind.

The situation of children in the 'House of Orphans', concluded in the Warsaw ghetto, every day worse. Not enough clothes and underwear, the most basic medicines and soaps. It becomes harder to obtain food.

Sometimes Korchak had to spend a whole day to get half a sack of rotten potatoes, or rotten carrots. And if it succeeded, Korczak was happy. Still, working children's Diet and friendly court. Published a children's newspaper. Until the last day of classes were learned. Rehearsed pantomime Rabindranath Tagore Mail: Near Korczak remained a handful of his associates. This was a Pole, a watchman 'orphanages' pan Zalewski. When entered into a shelter in the ghetto, Zalewski he went for Jewish children, once and for choosing their own destiny. In August fascists Zalewski directly in the yard 'orphanages'.

In the room where he lived and worked Korczak, was added with each passing day more and more sick children.

Lot of people tried in vain to persuade to leave the ghetto, Korczak. To somehow ease his life, . friends rented a room for him on Belyanah, . a few blocks from the ghetto, . knowing, . the authorities, . despite Jewish origin Korczak, . allowed the writer to leave and return to prison voluntarily chosen: But Korczak refused to leave their children even for a few hours,
. I occasionally used this right in order only to extract at least some food, which in the ghetto actually left.

When reliable information was received that the 'House of Orphans', in full force the Germans sent to the concentration camp at Treblinka, Korczak came to rescue one of the most faithful disciples - Igor Neverli: Here is what he later recalled. 'When I came to him with a pass for two persons, Korczak looked at me so that I cringed. It was evident that he did not expect me to such a proposal. The meaning of the doctor answered was this: do you not throw her child in misery, disease and danger. And then two hundred children: If they leave, can I survive this?: '

Here are the latest entries from the famous 'Diary' Korczak, miraculously saved by his students.

'Last year, the last month or hour. I would like to die, while maintaining his presence of mind and in full consciousness. I do not know what I'd said goodbye to the children. I would only say: they shall elect its own way:

I never wish evil.

August 5, 1942.

Last march of children 'orphanages' across the platform to the carriages, took them to death, turned into a grand tragic procession which challenges fascism.

Children were four unlikely. Ahead Korczak. Above the heads of children to develop a green banner of hope, with a four-gold clover. Green knew fearless young king Matiusha: Even Auxiliary Police stood at attention and saluted: German, . looking at Korczak, . asked, . Who is this man?: 'Korczak with children' - the answer: When the children were already in the cars, . German commandant, . responsible for loading the train, . asked Korczak, . not whether he wrote the Bankruptcy little Jack,
. 'Yes, but perhaps it has something to do with sending the train? " - 'No, I just read your book in my childhood. Good book. You can stay, Doctor: '-' And the children? " - 'Can not, children will go. " - 'You are mistaken, - shouted Korczak, - You are mistaken, Children First! " - And slammed the door wagon.

A few days later, in a concentration camp Treblinka, Korczak, together with their children, entered the gas chamber.

On the road to death, Korczak kept in the hands of two very young children and telling a story, an unsuspecting kids.

As you know, the Apostle Peter, one of the favorite disciples of Jesus Christ, thrice denied his Master. Thrice ten times tempted by Janusz Korczak, did not leave their disadvantaged students.

Here are a few tiny fragments from a poem by Alexander Galich 'Kaddish', dedicated to Janusz Korczak.

I do not know how to pray, forgive me, Lord God,
I do not know how to pray, forgive me and help me!
Withdrawing from the Warsaw train
And soon our turn, whatever one
. Well, burn, burn, my star,
. Gauri on his sleeve and on his chest!

. Once again I'll little,
. And the world again, and most festive,
. Once again I'll cloud
. Once again I'll finches,
. When I was young again I will
. And the snow again whiff apple:

. In place of Korczak's death in Treblinka is a large stone
. It is short inscription: "Janusz Korczak and the children '.

In 1978, a hundred years since the birth Korczak, UNESCO declared 1978 - Year of Janusz Korczak. This event is celebrated as the feast of eternal childhood. Across the earth - children and adults.

In August 2002, marks 60 years since the heroic death of Janusz Korczak.

It seems that this man - Janusz Korczak surpassed the feat of the mythological titan Prometheus.

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  • nattty for KORCHAK Janusz
  • potryasauwij 4elovek, esli by nashi pedagogi xotya by znali ego biografiu, mozet men'she zla bylo na svete
  • Catherine for KORCHAK Janusz
  • be more such people in our time! A good article,
  • funky_lock for KORCHAK Janusz
  • read about Janusz Korczak, listening to a song by Jean-Jacques Goldman "Comme toi", dedicated to the destruction of Jewish children in concentration camps in Poland .. incredibly strong man! wonder whether there is now such people in the world?
  • funky_lock for KORCHAK Janusz
  • read about Janusz Korczak, listening to a song by Jean-Jacques Goldman "Comme toi", dedicated to the destruction of Jewish children in concentration camps in Poland .. incredibly strong man! wonder whether there is now such people in the world?
  • Lev Konov for KORCHAK Janusz
  • If anyone interested in children's opera-musical "The King Matiush I" by Janusz Korczak and you want to listen to musical excerpts from a new opera, . you can contact the author, . Lev Konov, . by e-mail: lev-konov@yandex.ru three fragments (final block of the entire opera): a) Stage Children's Parliament "Hr.: 5:17 b) Intermezzo and Finale (Stage Court and the last word Matiusha) Chr.: about 10 min. c) Epilogue - Legend of the death of Janusz Korczak and his pupils in the gas chambers at Treblinka. Hr.: 6:24,
  • Chechen for KORCHAK Janusz
  • Yes, a very good deed, but he was a Jew and a gas chamber to him and the rest of the place!
  • boloeng for KORCHAK Janusz
  • Excellent article, megachelovek, his life and death served once and for all the chosen target, it is his great words - The problem with this world that they still rule the offended boys. And how did pity that biography tokogo person is on site, with lots of pornographic links, and all sorts of freaks kamentami anti-Semites ...
  • Ita Morne for KORCHAK Janusz
  • On Chechen saying: Well, you must, war is not all idiots killed tenacious!
  • stjopa10 for KORCHAK Janusz
  • I read about Korczak in Wikipedia. It is said that the circumstances of his death is not exactly izvesny.Naskolko reliable information about his death, when-evolving needs vyshe.Otvette please!
  • Ukrainian for KORCHAK Janusz
  • nothing klyapat on Chechens! (this is for the person who introduced himself as the Chechens!) for the others (who say stupid, that war is not all monsters killed) - freaks of the already fully. and the foolish: Chechen never called Chechens. "Chechen" say all the rest. Outcomes: Chechen to: 1. not say so (see the place and subject to slander) 2. Chechen would not say the Chechens.
  • Zera for KORCHAK Janusz
  • It was a holy, holy people, people! When I was 7 years old, my first teacher in 1 п¦п¦п¦я¦я¦я¦п¦ brought his book, "When I become a little again and read it aloud to us children, and I was studying in Baku, where he was born in 1960. in Grade 1 started in 1967. So this book became central to my life and the life of this man was an example of how man should live. It's almost like Jesus Christ, and because Jesus was also a Jew. After 40 years I have heard in the transfer of clouds Alexander Galich's poem "Kaddish", which burned from the heart. I. traveled north in 1977, did not take this book. and the smashing of the house she lost, but found in the same library and opened it, (and I remember all of it, and even individual phrases memorized). So this opening, it again I met her early childhood, and with tears in her rereading. I then, in 7 years, read his biography, and it shocked me to the depths of my soul! And so impressed Alexander Galich's poem I wrote a requiem of Janusz Korczak, as well as a requiem, dedicated to children, and Beslan. A "Chechen" this is a real prostosam subhuman - the same fascist and a rabid nationalist, once these words expressed. Yes indeed full of freaks, and they, unfortunately, worse than rabid dogs, one of which he is.'s Requiem in the next publish.
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