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John Le Carre

( English writer)

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Biography John Le Carre
Le Carre, John (Le Carre, John), (p. 1931), English writer, author of spy novels, is considered an outstanding master of political detective stories of the Cold War '. Nickname, real name David John Moore Cornwall - David John Moore Cornwell. Born October 19, 1931 in Pula (Dorset). In 16 years, John left school and went to Switzerland. During the nine months (1948-1949) studied German at Berne University, then served in Austria as part of the British Intelligence Corps. He continued his studies at Milfordskoy school in Oxford. In 1956 he graduated from Oxford University with a first degree.

In the spy novel, tried his hand in the early 1960's, when he worked in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and then was in the diplomatic service in Bonn. Collaborated with the British secret service. Diplomatic status does not allow Cornwall to publish under his own name, and then came the nickname 'Le Carre'

. George Smiley, . hero of a series of books of Le Carre, . first appeared in his first novel "Call of the late" (Call for the Dead, . 1961) and "Murder on a gentleman" (A Murder of Quality, . 1962), . - Plump ugly little man of middle age, . with glasses and bad suits - the agent of the highest class, . who gave the British Secret Service for over thirty years,
. Third novel, Le CarrцL, The Spy, . Came in from the cold "(The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, . 1963; translated as "The Spy, . who returned from the cold ") brought the author international recognition, . received the approval of critics and ordinary readers in different countries,
. For 'Circus', as referred to in the novel by British intelligence (MI-5) and intelligence (MI-6), as well as their enemies-the Marxists, the end justifies the means loving the novel's heroes used to sacrifice for a cause. In his classic study of "disastrous consequences: From the detective story to the political detective" (Mortal Consequences: A History from the Detective Story to the Crime Novel), Julian Symons says, . that "Spy" - the best novel Le Carre, . because 'the plot is built very clear and, . and the degradation of personality seamlessly blends with the history of espionage ',
. In this book, Le Carre has received in 1963 'Golden Dagger' - Prize of the British Association of detective and political novel, in 1965 - the prize 'Edgar', awarded by the 'Society of American detective'. The book's success has allowed Le Carre fully concentrate on literary work

. In "War Through the Looking Glass" (The Looking Glass War, . 1965), . in gloomy pessimistic story about the unsuccessful operation of British intelligence, . the focus of the activities of the department, . responsible for the operation and living nostalgic memories of the past glorious days,
. Far from being a reality, this structure is a novel, a microcosm of British society, as well as private high school in "Murder on a gentleman", so that both books, in fact, novels about England.

Experience Le Carre at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been reflected in the novel "In one German town" (A Small Town in Germany, 1968; translated as "In a small town on the Rhine," "In one town on the Rhine"). The plot - the history of the British diplomat, disappearing with extremely important documents that could deprive Britain likely to join the Common Market. Le Carre briefly parted with the usual genre, working on the "naive and sentimental lover" (The Naive and Sentimental Lover, 1971)

. Le Carre quickly returned to Smiley, . 'Circus' and espionage in the widely accepted trilogy "The search for Carla" (Quest for Karla), . including novels "tinker, . grinder, . shoemaker, . spy "(Tinker, . Tailor, . Soldier, . Spy, . 1974), . "Honorable scholar" (The Honorable Schoolboy, . 1977), . for which the author received in 1978 'Golden Dagger', . and "Team Smiley" (Smiley's People),

Landmark in the works of Le CarrцL's novel was "The little drummer" (Drummer Girl, 1983) - the artistic study of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The novel "The Perfect Spy" (A Perfect Spy, 1986; translated as "superspy") - the story about the life of a spy. The most autobiographical novel, Le Carre is the most favorite of his work. "Russian House" (The Russian House, 1989; translated as "Russian Front") was a response to Le Carre Gorbachev's perestroika and glasnost. Aged George Smiley returns to readers in the "Secret pilgrims" (The Secret Pilgrim, 1991).

The novel "Night administrator" (The Night Manager, 1993), dedicated to drug trafficking and smuggling of narcotics, was the first writer to answer the question where to go in search of a spy novel to the end of the Cold War. Subsequent books gave very different answers. In "Our Game" (Our Game, 1995) the complex relationship between the two Englishmen, a former intelligence officers, led both to the Caucasus region. Different character are the events of the novel "The Tailor of Panama" (The Tailor of Panama, 1996), originating in Central America.

When implemented on an international scale with the customs investigation into financial corruption - in the center of a dynamic and action-romance "Single End Single" (Single & Single, 1999).

Now Le Carre-writer can be likened to a spy, has returned from the Cold War. 18-th of his novel "The Faithful Gardener" (The Constant Gardener, 2001) suggests that he is in great shape. Le Carre develops here, and new territory for themselves: this is his first book on the African material, and only the second novel in the heroic female character.

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