Levitanskaya Yury Davidovich( Russian poet, translator)
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Biography Levitanskaya Yury Davidovich
Levitanskaya, Yuri DAVYDOVITCH (1922-1996), Russian poet, translator.
Born January 22, 1922 in the city Kozelec Chernihiv region in an assimilated Jewish family. Father - employee. The early years were spent in Kiev, where he moved with his family. Later, when his father found work at the mine, the family lived in a small mining town, then in Stalino (Donbass). He studied at the Ukrainian school.
By the school year include the first attempt at writing and publication in newspapers of Donbass.
After finishing school in 1939 Yu Levitanskaya sent to Moscow and became a student of the institute (Institute of philology, literature and history), one of the best schools in the country. At the same time with him in various courses taught D. Samoilov, P. Cogan, M. Kulchitsky, L. Ozerov, S. Narovchatov etc..
As a student who signed up for 3 year, Yu Levitanskaya enjoyed exemption from military service, but already 22 June 1941 together with other students, he writes in the army as a volunteer. After the end of June was commissioned last exam, goes to the front. Some time was a machine gunner. Participated in the defense of Moscow, and ahead, he said, were 'North-West, Steppe and 2 First Ukrainian fronts, the battle on the Orel-Kursk Bulge, the capture of Kharkov, the crossing of the Dnieper, and then the Dniester and Prut'. The Great Patriotic War Yu Levitanskaya graduated in Czechoslovakia, having risen from private to lieutenant (in the military specialties - gunner, commander of the unit, a correspondent for the front of the newspaper).
In the summer of 1945, in which he served, were transferred to Mongolia: ': I still had that small, she quietly war with the Japanese, with their Kwantung Army in Manchuria, forcing the ridges of the Great Khingan'.
In the same year Yu Levitanskaya transferred to Irkutsk, where he moved his parents. There, until the summer of 1947, when he finally got the order to demobilize, is the newspaper of the East Siberian Military District, then works as the head of the literary section of the Irkutsk Musical Comedy Theater.
In the early postwar years, Yu Levitanskaya is a prominent figure in local literary circles (starting from 1943, he published in magazines such as' Banner ',' Soviet soldier ',' Siberian Lights', 'Ogonek). Treated exploring in connection with the unfolding of the country's campaign against cosmopolitanism. By his own admission, helped to resolve this situation novelist GM Markov, begins when your way of literary functionary.
Then, one after another, in Siberia, as well as in the Moscow publishing house published several collections of poetry Yu Levitansky, graciously accepted criticism (in Irkutsk was even published a monograph on it).
In 1955 enters the higher literature courses at the Union of Soviet Writers, which he graduated in 1957. In the late 50's Levitanskaya moved to Moscow, and changed his poetic world.
The tone poem became warmer, trusting in the center of attention the author has been increasingly exposed to 'little things in life', the details (no wonder Yu Levitanskaya called his teacher Anton Chekhov). If the collection "Cardinal" (1959), these trends are only outlines, in the collection "The Earthly Heaven" (1963) modified the style became apparent. Artistic techniques that refer to the experience of cinema, fully used in the next book, already found here. Some poems Yu Levitansky could probably be compared with the works of Soviet animation, created in the same period. For example, similar creative elements of the poem "The painfully want to draw:" and the cartoon directors SW. and VA Brumberg "I drew a little man" (1961).
Hence, only a small step to the poetics of the book "Cinema" (1970). It movie - the art, the emergence of a whole which had a 20 at. And which, in a sense, serves as a symbol of this century, also serves as a metaphor of life of the individual. Claimed in the name and launched into 'Introduction to the book' metaphor progressively more complicated, cluttered details. Offering a 'shooting method' (in the poems, . telling about, . how to show a particular time of year), . offering 'fragments of the script' (the subtitle of some poems), . selecting 'я┌п╦п©п╟п╤' (portraits 'ironic man', . 'square rights', . 'old woman with a string bag'), . the author details the source image, . which gradually grows to the size of the universe,
In addition, a comparison of life with film implicitly echoes the famous Shakespearean compared with the theater world, but people with actors. The new art is not only our own laws, it has a kind of immortality, movies, live and when the actors in the world is long gone, while the performance of 'dying' immediately after the fall of the curtain.
Collections "Day of a certain" (1976) and "Letters of Katherine, or walk with Faust" (1981) demonstrate the high poetic skill, develop and vary the main themes of poetry Yu Levitansky. It seems that during the search ended and a period of approval found.
Later collections - this is a book of poems, where a separate poem takes a subordinate position in relation to the whole, losing independence, becoming the composite unit. Here and extremely simple, sometimes tautological rhyme (that was immediately pointed parodist), and musical analogies ( 'motifs', passing through various works). The mention of music is not by chance, . Ukrainian poet and scholar M. Bazhan comparing the individual verses Yu Levitansky with fugues, . while he Levitanskaya Yu said in an interview, . that the book 'Cinema' is built on the principle of constructing a sonata (Allegro, . andante, . Scherzo, . Allegro),
The attitude to this or that phenomenon, but always intonation, which is easy to recognize the author. Modernity gradually fades into the background. If the first Yu Levitanskaya, . like his colleagues, . gladly welcomed technological progress (eg, . wrote poems about artificial satellite), . Now he comes to mind, . that technological progress is aggressive, . displaces tale, . fantasy, . Miracles: Something happened, . We all leave,
. / / The old friendship, as the leaves have fallen. / /: What a dish long ago does not fly. / / Snow people disappeared somewhere. And the sad conclusion: The wings are not already heard behind the back. / / Robot snoring behind my wall.
Last lifetime book "blank verse" (1991) was awarded the State Prize of Russia for 1995. Yu Levitanskaya taking later recognized, however, does not exaggerate their own importance. So in the poem, . dedicated to the great Russian poet, . in twenty years 'visionaries', . in thirty 'prophets', . He says: We have them all over from year to year, . Hour by hour, . / Live, . on the awkwardness of trying to catch himself, . / / That we are geniuses Russia Parnassus / / already at the age of good in the sons,
. And yet: no judges we have higher than they.
But no matter how their work evaluated the poet himself, they are always well received by readers and listeners. Poems Yu Levitansky published abroad, they wrote several songs ( "Dialogue with the Christmas tree" and "Dream of the passing train," Nikitina, "Well, what with the fact that I was there:" B. Berkovskii).
Special place in the work of Yu Levitansky took poetic translation. Working in this area since the mid 50's, he tried among the poems of Armenian, Baltic, Moldovan poets find those where the understanding of the world to his own tune. Translations of works of poets of Eastern Europe were the anthology "From May until May" (1975).
Verse parodies, and composes for close friends and since the mid 50's and later included in the book "Story of versions" (1978), so masterly that the author is rightly considered a classic of this genre.
The last years of his life Yu Levitansky marked relative prosperity. He led a poetry workshop in the Institute of Literature named after Maxim Gorky, gave numerous interviews, his poems are regularly published in periodicals. He visited Israel, has produced several publications for the anthology "Crossroads-Tzomet, was going to write memoirs.
Nevertheless, he considered it necessary to speak and policy (for example, in his time, he was one of the first signatories to the letter in defense of Yu and Daniel A. Sinyavsky). Not once declared that it was necessary to stop the war in Chechnya. In the 'round table' of the Moscow intelligentsia, held at City Hall, he returned to this problem. His speech was so emotional that the heart could not stand.
YD Levitanskaya died Jan. 25, 1996 in Moscow.