Stanislaw LEM( Polish science fiction writer)
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Biography Stanislaw LEM
LEM, Stanislaw (Lem, Stanislav) (p. 1921) - Polish science fiction writer.
Born September 12, 1921 in Lviv.
Lem made world-wide fame as a fiction writer, many perceive it as a modern classic. But ultimately Lem's prose - rather a philosophy taught by the reader in images. He pours relentlessly bright and cold light of reason the hidden corners of human civilization. Subjected to questioning everything, even the most simple and well-established truths. The main 'enemy' Lem - intellectual laziness, unwillingness to reflect upon the essence of things and the laws governing the universe. Another serious opponent - intellectual pride: we know a lot, so we know everything! - Well, is not this ridiculous superstition?
Perhaps such a view of the world contributed to a writer education. Before the Second World War, he studied at the Lvov Medical Institute, and completed his studies at the famous Jagiellonian University (Cracow) is already in the postwar years. Subsequently, some time was a practicing physician. And in literature, he showed a 'medical' approach: any phenomenon, any idea of Dr. Lem impassively diagnoses, and then produces 'opening' with firmness pathologist.
This writer praised Poland. In a much greater degree Lem - 'citizen of the world'. During the Second World War, he survived several years of Nazi occupation, almost fell out of the ghetto, took part in resisting the invaders.
In 1980, he was almost ten years away from Poland and enough to travel to Europe, perceiving it as his 'great home'. Meanwhile, the Poles are rigidly divided between supporters and opponents of the communist regime. There reigned pre-war mood, it was expected that the Soviet troops enter the territory of the country. He returned already in a different Poland: Communism in this country lost the last position.
In 1940 there were published his first science fiction stories and novels. In 1950 Stanislaw Lem - a professional writer, who left medical work. Fame came to him quickly. For a quarter century, he created his best works - a real 'world Lem'. The peak of literary fiction is a career between 1951 and 1976. Subsequently, the classical forms of artistic narrative clearly bored Maц-tre (although from time to time he returns to them). Already in 1970 began to write on the unusual form of work, a kind of naked collections of ideas - scientific, critical, philosophical - that are completely deprived of literary shell. This 'scenario novels', reviews of nonexistent books, treatises, written in the style of intellectual game.
The attention of millions of readers attracted mainly by the space fantasy Lema. Under the sign of 'Space Odyssey' was created his first book - "Astronauts" (1951), which has gained wide popularity. But the high pedestal of a recognized authority in the field of science fiction Stanislaw Lem picked up another book: the novel "Magellanic Cloud" (1955). In the period 1950-1960-x in the socialist camp was the question sharply: to show people coming paradise under the banner of the communist ideology, . tell, . for which were brought terrible sacrifices in World War II, . explain, . What is the ultimate goal of government reform, . destroy all the old way of life,
. In the Soviet Union appeared utopian scale paintings, created by Ivan Efremov, Georgi Gurevich, Arkady and Boris Strugatsky. Lem completed the novel "The Magellanic Cloud, the same problem: the first part of the novel is the story about the people of the future - honest, friendly, creative fire blazing in the second part of the envoys of the Earth on a colossal spaceship aliens have Communism. But in "The Astronaut", and "Magellanic Cloud" Lem dry, academic, his talent goes through a stage of formation. Only in the late 1950's he created one of the most beloved of his heroes - the rational, balanced and decent man, a pilot-kosmoletchika Pirksa. In Pirkse for the first time and showed the gift of Lem-artist, sad and romantic, very unlike the Lem-thinker - cold nasmeshinka, 'trepanatora reality'. For three decades Pirks walked out of the story in the story. Lem, with extraordinary clarity, testified: going beyond the Earth's atmosphere, mankind does not get rid of their problems, but simply brings them into space, and always he wanted to be quiet smart 'pirksy' to stop people in two steps from disaster. Readers fell in love with this hero, perhaps more than any other characters that came from the pen of a Polish science fiction.
In the novel "The Return from the Stars" (1961) Lem presented to the reader two eternally competing truth - 'truth of science' and 'truth tripe'. On the one hand - the image of man in the street who wants to protect itself from foreign aggression, to arrange in the life of himself and his family, deprived of his bold thrust to the knowledge of the world, but true to his family and his home. On the other - an image of the heroic astronaut, a scientist willing to pay both your own and others' lives for the new gleanings, but at the same time, unable to truly love, running on the personal psychological problems of the world's end. Lem honestly and with remarkable thoroughness leads the arguments of both sides (in the artistic form). In an early story "A rat in a maze, he drew enthusiastic fanatics for contact with extraterrestrials grim picture: human intelligence is too weak and limited, to establish a dialogue with the dying stranger. In the novel, "Invincible" and (1954) all the power of technological progress earthlings defeated in a battle with the quasi-cybernetic organism. The fact that rescue crew spaceship earth, . equipped with the latest science, . based on luck: on the people simply did not pay attention, . someone killed, . some people have brought to mind, . spoiled the best technique, . but did not particularly notice the strangers,
. One should never rely on force, even though science - always will find greater strength ... In polumisticheskom, very dark novel "The Investigation" (1959), representatives of science for a couple with the police often utter impotence to solve a series of sudden resurrections. Cold body of the dead leaves morgues, a whole team of smart people beating on the issues of how and why this is happening, but I can not answer them. The book concludes, but mystery remains a mystery. The novel "Solaris" (1961) is considered the top creative Lema. It colossal, a motley collection of knowledge of human science is helpless and useless when the required drop of conscience and a little bit of love. Solaris shows the author's attitude to the problem of boundaries set by the knowledge, limitations to the human mind. Humans can build spaceships, vigorously develop the scope of scientific knowledge, accumulating whole oceans of facts. But there are at least two positions that are impossible to know until the last limit. This is, first, God (or something god-like, gives the highest sanction of all things). And, secondly, the man himself. The tremendous amount of knowledge gathered by scientists over several centuries, it is impossible to attach to self-knowledge. And even if we could, people would have agreed to solve their internal problems with the requirements of science? Unlikely. Lem - the great master to put unresolved issues to formulate a global problem. But he very rarely gives the answers. At best, it tells you how to behave in an individual and humanity as a whole, not to look like a complete idiot (several billions of complete idiots) when faced with similar issues and problems. Yes, we think, we must anticipate, we must have recourse to the intellect. But as soon as a man firmly established in the belief that he was able to find the ultimate truth, the eternal and immutable, Lem immediately puts his ridicule. And his laughter merciless.
Peru Stanislaw Lem has several cycles of humorous fiction, united by common characters. Two favorite couples play the role of a master of ceremonies, guides his paradoxical ideas. The first of them - it kosmoprohodets Ijon Pacific and Professor Tarantoga. Second - the great cyber inventors Trurl and Klapautsy. Eccentricities robots are just an excuse that allows to show the absurdity and irrationality of the human society, to scientific dead ends, to demonstrate the awkwardness of the mass of literature.
One of the best works of Lem and, perhaps, the most terrible thing - a fantastic detective Rhinitis (1976). One after another, go crazy and commit suicide a few wealthy middle-aged lovers relax on the Italian resorts. To find the mysterious killer, a private detective agency organized 'simulates the operation'. In Italy, sent a man who throughout most similar to the victims. He was to visit places where they lived, entertained and killed. The result showed that all suicide bombers have come to a state of depression under the influence of chemical substances contained in a totally harmless (separately) the objects - a means of baldness, sugared almonds, cheap wine, etc.. World becomes very uncomfortable and unmanageable. It contains a threat that is absolutely impossible to predict. Modern built 'old rich white men', claiming the world that they hold dear. But in the second half of the 20 in. torn out of their control and began to destroy themselves. 'Mankind has so multiplied and tough - discusses one of the heroes story Rhinitis - that it begin to affect the laws by which atoms are. Each atom ... moves randomly, but it creates a certain order of chaos'. Lem one of the first felt the cold breath of the future, bursting from the third millennium, in a supposedly comfortable little world of modern reality and keep the physical and mathematical representations, deceptive politics and banking. He warns: Humanity built a house, where all amenities can unsubscribe at any time.
In the works of Lem filmed several movies. Repeatedly portrayed the novel "Solaris" - in particular, the director Andrei Tarkovsky. In the Soviet Union was also popular film "The question Pirx the Pilot" story by "the Court".
Lem was also the author of important works of a scientific nature. In particular, worldwide experts in predicting the future in science - Futures - know the fundamental, a very significant amount of work Stanislaw Lem's "Fantasy and futurology" (1970). In an earlier book - "The amount of technology" (1964) science fiction itself acts as a practicing futurist. He is trying to identify routes of modern civilization, meaning that it will maintain in the future from human basis. Finally, it is widely known for it's culture-work "philosophy of the case" (1968). The last decades of creativity Lem marked predominant interest in philosophy, sociology, methodology, and not to literature. Nevertheless, his name is primarily associated with science fiction.