ClöLment Marot( French poet of the Renaissance)
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Biography ClöLment Marot
Marot, ClöLment (Marot, ClöLment) (1497-1544), French poet of the Renaissance.
Born in 1497 in Cahors. Father, Jean de Mera, nicknamed Marot (1463-1523), who comes from the Norman city of Caen, a court poet and historian during the reign of Louis XII and Francis I, belonged to the 'great rhetoric'. Since 1506, together with his parents moved to Paris. From childhood, showed a lively and inquiring mind, was a mighty hunter before reading. Received a good education at home: of Latin language, . read Virgil in the original, . Ovid, . Catullus, . Martial, . fond of French medieval literature ( "Golden Legend", . "Lancelot", . "A novel about a Rose", . Alain Chartier, . Francois Villon), . joined the music,
. Perhaps the companies involved in amateur actors (Bazosh, carefree guys). He served as a clerk in court, then became pazhom Nicolas de Neuville, seigneur de Villeroy. Then he began to write poetry. In 1515 Francis I dedicated the poem "The Temple of Cupid" (Temple de Cupido), written under the strong influence of 'the great rhetoric', verbose, and teeming with abstractions, and allegories; in it appear all the characters' novel about the Rose ". In 1518 was presented to Margaret of Valois, Duchess of Alenö¬on, sister of Francis I, became from that time his unwavering protector. Devote to it an allegorical message of "disadvantaged" (le Despourvu) in the spirit of Guillaume de Lorrisa. In 1519 Margaret was appointed valet; translated the Latin poets, composed a lyrical and satirical poems. In 1521, accompanied by the Duke Charles IV of Alenö¬on in the camp under Attini Rethel. In 1525 participated in a campaign of Francis I in northern Italy, in a battle with the German-Spanish troops in Pavia on Feb. 24, 1525 was wounded and taken prisoner, but was soon released and returned to France.
In February 1526 charged that the fat consumed during Lent, as a heretic and imprisoned Chatelet. Made the transfer of his case under the judicial jurisdiction of Bishop Chartres. Was transported to Chartres, . where three months held in the hotel 'Eagle', wrote a satirical poem "Inferno" (Enfer), . which mocked their judges, . in allegory comparing Chatelet with pagan underworld, while preparing the publication of the novel about the Rose "(published in 1527),
. In May 1526 pardoned by Francis I. At the end of 1526 replaced the seriously ill father in the position of royal valet. In October 1527 was again arrested for attempting to discourage the palace guards per inmate. I turned to Francis I of verse petition for forgiveness (Pour le delivrer de prison), and as early as 1 November was released on orders from the highest.
In 1532 published his first poetry collection "Klemanova youth" (Adolescence ClöLmentine), brought him great popularity in court circles. In the same year, the Paris Parliament initiated the process against him on charges of heresy, which, however, was terminated due to the intercession of Marguerite de Valois. In 1532-1534 as a court poet, wrote a large number of rondo, etrennov (madrigals), epigrams and ballads, published writings F. Villon (1532).
After a night of posters on 17-18 November 1534, when the secret supporters of the Reformation pasted in the royal castle at Amboise anti-Catholic pamphlets, got the list of suspects (the seventh of seventy-three). Learning of the impending search and arrest, fled from Touraine to Nerak (Azhenua) to Marguerite de Valois, which became by the time the queen of Navarre. Stayed with her for several months, . left on her advice to Italy, found refuge in Ferrara on one of the most brilliant of the Italian courts of that era - the yard Renee French, . daughter of Louis XII and the wife of Duke Ercole d'Este of Ferrara, . who patronized humanists and sympathized with the Reformation, then moved to Venice,
. I turned to Francis I and the dauphin with pardon. Winter 1536/1537 at the request of friends of the court was allowed to return home. In Lyon brought a solemn repentance before Cardinal F. de TOURNON; was enthusiastically adopted by the Lyon school of poets headed by M. sowing. Upon his return to Paris thanked their helpers in the special message "God bless the yard" (Dieu gard ö= la cour). Into an argument with a priest Norman F. Sagogn, . mediocre poet and retrograde, . struck him with a flagrant attack during his stay in Italy, . and wrote in verse sarcastic pamphlet "Fripelipp, . servant Maro, . Sagogn "(Fripelippes, . valet de Marot, . ö= Sagon); this dispute, . divided the French poets into two camps, . complete victory K. Maro (on his side made by Bonaventure des PöLriers, . Rabelais, . Melle de Saint-Jelly, . Antoine Eroe, . Maurice North), etc.,
. In 1537-1541, . besides love 'news' (actualites), . etrennov, . epigrams, etc., . turned to more serious subjects: implemented verse translation of the two "interviews" Erasmus and wrote Royal Christian chant (Chant royal chrestien), . "The Hymn of the Christian world to celebrate the arrival of the emperor and king of Nice" (Cantique de la chröLtiennetöL sur la venue de l'empereur et du roy au voyage de Nice) and "praise to the King under the name Pan and Robin" (Eglogue au roy sous les noms de Pan et de Robin),
. In 1538 came the first edition of his works.
Translated and published in 1541 thirty of the Old Testament, Psalms, giving them odic form, full of secular grace. "Psalms" were a great success not only at court, but also among the Huguenots, who began to use them in their religious ceremonies. Translation of the Sorbonne was declared heretical, and K. Maro had to flee again from France, this time in Geneva, where he translated for another twenty psalms, their second expanded edition in 1543 with a foreword by John Calvin. Volny image of the poet's life has angered Genevan, and he was forced to go to the Duchy of Savoy. He died in 1544 in Turin, the poor and forgotten.
Seung K. Maro Michel, Marguerite de Valois page with 1534, also was a poet, though he could never approach the level of his father, from him survived several dizenov (desyatistrochnikov) and "Ode to flower princesses, queen of Navarre".
K. Maro is wholly owned by the new humanistic age and in spirit, and the type of person (freedom of thought, broad education, diversity of interests, sense of belonging to the intellectual elite). He left behind a rich poetic heritage. In addition to the two largest and most famous poems, "The Temple of Cupid" and "Hell", his pen owned 294 epigrams, 80 Rondo, 65 letters, 54 etrenna, 52 epitaphs (35 major and 17 jokes), 42 songs, 27 elegies, 15 ballads 5 zaplachek (gravestone elegies). These can add 22 national anthem and 11 religious speeches. He translated Psalm 50, one eclogue of Virgil, two books "Metamorphoses" of Ovid and wrote 5 Preface to his published writings of F. Villon and the "novel about a Rose".
Creativity K. Maro entertained French medieval literature, especially Medieval and academic poetic tradition. He was under the direct influence of 'the great rhetoric' - his father, Jean de Mera Marot, Jean Molinet (1435-1507), Jean Lemaire de Belge (1473 - c.. 1525), Guillaume ChröLtien (mind. 1525) - and could never completely get rid of him: his compositions are full of allegories, . personification, . abstractions and prosodic games (a variety of rhyming, . Alliteration, . acrostic) they imbued with an interest in exotic and the desire to demonstrate learning,
. In this aristocratic poetry K. Maro introduces the popular jet, which he borrows from F. Villon. It sharpens the poetic forms created by his predecessors - ballade, rondeau, Triolet, dizen, blazon - and even creates on the basis of medieval fatrazii new genre - a genre kokalana ( 'jump'), a sarcastic wit, transforming into a disconnected verses.
At the same time K. Maro thoroughly imbued with the ancient (Latin) culture. He has enriched the genre repertoire of French literature at the expense of the ancient genres - elegy, eulogy, epigrams, epistles, odes, which was finally confirmed it through the work of poets of the Pleiades. In less K. Maro was raised of the Italian Renaissance tradition, although it was influenced by Boccaccio and Petrarch, from whom he took the genre of the sonnet.
And, finally, K. Maro, was the first French poets turned to the treasury of ancient Jewish (Old Testament) poetry (translation of the Psalms). In this regard, he anticipated the achievements F.de Malerba, Jean Racine and Jean Jacques Rousseau.
K. Maro was a striking representative emerged in the early 16. courtly culture of France. He is best expressed the spirit and intellectual needs of the court of Francis I. He was able to adapt to this new culture of national French poetic tradition. Focusing on the evolving tastes of high society, he sought to avoid in his work pedantry, verbiage and the banality and subjugated his poetry action legislation. She characterized by easy elegance, insinuating grace, the natural, though somewhat naive simplicity, sudden bursts of wit and imagination, the ability to speak lightly of serious, nothing to prove and instructing (style marotique). Her main point - to entertain, mock and ridicule, so there's so little sentimentality and genuine passion. For K. Maro more important to establish contact with the audience and meet its expectations, than to send their intimate personal experiences, thus it is the predecessor of Vincent Voiture (1598-1648). He is not interested either in nature or social problems, not mysteries of the transcendent world, and life in the most beautiful of its manifestations.
The first poet of the French Renaissance, K. Maro is at the origin of the rationalistic movement of French literature. Thought he had - the essence of poetry, which she and exhaustive form, word, rhythm only valid as a means of expressing certain ideas. That is why creativity K. Maro was so popular with poets Pleiades and that is why it is claimed by the literature of classicism and the Enlightenment. For N. Boileau, F. de Lafontaine, P. De Bussy-Rabyutena, . F. Fenelon, . Zh.deLabryuyera, . F. Voltaire and Jean-Zh.Russo he was the chief spokesman of the French Renaissance to F.de Malerba, . perfect poet, . use forms of Latin and Italian literature, . to elevate the French culture to an unprecedented height,
. That is why the 19. with its strong tendency antiratsionalisticheskoy K. Maro gave low marks - superficial court poet who can not, with rare exceptions, to rise to true poetry. However, in the XX century. through research of many scientists, . including VF Shishmarev (1915), . P. Wille (1923), . VA-L.Sone (1952), . K.-A.Meyera (1954) and YB Wigner, . recognized the important and multifaceted role in the development of K. Maro and reform of French poetry of the first half of the 16.,