Slawomir MROZHEK( Polish writer, dramatist)
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Biography Slawomir MROZHEK
MROZHEK, Slawomir (Mroе+ek, Slavomir) (p. 1930), Polish novelist, playwright, painter.
Born June 29, 1930 in the village Bozhenchin County Brzesko Krakow province. Date June 26, contained in all the official biographies and encyclopedic articles arose because of incorrect records in the church book, on the basis of which were subsequently issued for.
Father - Anthony Mrozhek, the son of a poor peasant, had only primary education and the miracle was promoted to the mail clerk, mother - Zofia Mrozhek (nee - Kendzer)
. Enrolling in the architectural faculty of the Cracow University of Technology, . Mrozhek away from home (later recalled, . that in this period 'slept in the attic with friends, . ate soup for the homeless in a shelter sisters-nuns'), . also visited the Krakow Academy of Fine Arts,
Literary activity began in the Cracow newspaper 'Dziennik Polish', which originally resided 'as the editorial errand-boy', was engaged in the ongoing work of the newspaper, wrote on various topics. First satires and humorous pieces saw the light in 1950. Works published in periodicals, a compilation of "Practical polupantsiri" (1953), was published and the novel "Little Summer" (1956). In 1956 Mrozhek was the first time abroad, he visited the Soviet Union, was in Odessa.
Quickly came the recognition of readers was not, however, evidence of high literary merit early prose Mrozheka. By his own admission, soaked in his youth communist ideals (which contributed to a special warehouse in his character and temperament) eradicated a long and difficult. The book, which he considers his first major work - a collection of "Elephant" (1957). He was a great success. Mrozhek said: 'It was a collection of short, very short, but in all respects acute stories. <:> Some phrases from the book turned into proverbs and sayings, which proves how my thoughts were then near and dear to my fellow citizens'. This was followed by collections of "Wedding in Atomitsah" (1959), "progressives" (1960), "Rain" (1962), the novel "Escape to the South" (1961).
The literature has repeatedly pointed out that creativity Mrozheka linked to its predecessors, in particular, W. Gombrowicz and SI Witkiewicz. This is true, but much more obvious link with the traditions of his prose Polish humor - foppish, almost sad and invariably thin. However, the Polish wit has the vertex achievements as aphorisms SE Letsa, satirical poems Tuwim, comic phantasmagoria KI Galczynski. The stories and humorous pieces Mrozheka - as if projected into infinity life situations. Thus, in the story of "Swan" the old watchman, guarding the park lonely bird decides to go bask in the beer and captures the bird with you - do not stay the same without her protection, and even in the cold. Caretaker warmed glass of vodka and sausages, Swan orders a delicacy in the form of white bread, soaked in a heated beer with sugar. The next day, everything is repeated, but on the third day, the swan invitingly pulling old clothes to the floor - time to go warm. Story ends with the fact that out of the park and kicked a guard and a bird, which sat on the water, swaying, walking horror mothers and children. The plot of the story contains a unique algorithm prose Mrozheka
. Important in his life began in 1959, . - He married a woman, . to which experienced a strong sense of, . in the same year at the invitation of Harvard University visited the U.S., . where he participated in a summer international seminar, . head of which was a political science professor Henry Kissinger,
. Two months spent overseas, a radical impact on the consciousness Mrozheka.
In early 1960 he left Krakow and moved to Warsaw, where he was greeted as a literary celebrity. He has published in periodicals, . including in the newspaper 'Przheglyad kulturalni', . Weekly 'Tugodnik povzeshni', . journals 'Dialogue', . 'Pshekruy', . 'Culture', . 'Tvorzhchozs', . maintains regular columns, . acts not only as a prose writer, . but also as a kind of cartoonist,
. Although the Mrozhek notes that 'lies precisely in the art graphics, a couple of strokes to describe the character', its graphics are tightly linked with the word. This is a funny picture, equipped with a short signature or dialogue, or a small series of images, in part similar to the comic book. No picture without text, or text without the picture can not exist separately. For example, the words 'Coming to Poland to arrive phenomenal football team' accompanied by drawings, where the imprinted team members, and each of them three feet. The report on the new model of Eskimo sled, . with reverse, , . and part of dog sledding is tied so, . that can run only in one direction, . the other part - only in another,
. It is clear that it is impossible. This lightweight solution is absurd on the fine directly connected with the tradition of Polish poster 1960-1970-x. Work Mrozheka-collected artist in editions of "Poland in Pictures" (1957), "Through the glasses Slawomir Mrozheka" (1968), "Images" (1982).
Most Mrozhek gained fame as a playwright. His dramatic compositions made reckon in final form in 1950-1960-x 'theater of the absurd', . it is dubbed the direction, . and, . rather, . none ethico-aesthetic space, . in which the work is so different masters, . the French Eugц¬ne Ionesco (1912-1994), . Jean Genet (1910-1986), . Irishman Samuel Beckett (1906-1989), . Spaniard Fernando Arrabal (p,
. 1932), Englishman, Harold Pinter (p. 1930). Sam E. Ionesco called his dramatic experiments 'theater paradox'. This definition is well suited to the plays Mrozheka, . where there is not so much, . that 'can not happen', . as through theatrical grotesque, . by injection of artistic means life situations is extremely acute, . satirically upsize,
. Life, as revealed in the artistic experience XX., By itself, and extremely absurd and monstrous paradox. Plays Mrozheka and mnogoaktnye and one act, with success came on the scene of the Polish theater, and then theaters around the world. Among his early plays - "Police" (1958), "The suffering of Peter O'Heyya" (1959), "Turkey" (1960), "The High Seas" (1961), "Karol2 (1961)," Striptease "(1961) "Death of Lieutenant" (1963).
Even while living at home, he gained wide popularity abroad, his books were translated, and plays were staged, which, in turn, multiplied his fame in Poland. But the desire to change the destiny, to become a European writer, made him decide to leave his native country. 3 or (other sources) June 6, 1963 Mrozhek with his wife flew to Rome on a tourist visa. He later recalled: 'In my plans was to create a precedent - the acquisition of the special status of the Polish writer, living abroad at their own expense and outside the jurisdiction of the Polish state'. Discussions with the government lasted five years, . In the end, the State has offered to obtain long-term foreign passport, . while Mrozhek had become a kind of illustration of the creative freedom of the Polish Writers, . not criticizing the political situation in Poland, . and, . opposite, . assuring the West, . that all is well,
. Plays continued to put his homeland, regularly published book, because the authorities considered it inappropriate to impose a ban on the product, so popular with readers and viewers. Many people had no idea that by living abroad. In February 1968 Mrozhek and his wife moved to France and settled in Paris.
This condition could last indefinitely, but the Prague events of 1968 and commissioning of Czechoslovakia by Soviet troops all changed. Mrozhek addressed an open letter, which condemns this act of aggression, which published the world's largest newspaper. The consequences are not forced to wait. When you try to renew passports, which had expired, Mrozheku who visited the Polish Embassy, was ordered in two weeks to return to Poland. Been waived, then play it at home have been withdrawn from the repertoire, the book withdrawn from sale, and the remaining in private libraries in a few instances have to walk on her hands, sold well on the 'black market'
. In 1969 the sudden illness of his wife died Mrozheka, . and he began years of lost souls and lonely wanderings, . He visited, . particularly, . Brazil, . Venezuela, . Mexico, . lived in the U.S., . some time taught at the University of Pennsylvania, . he lived in West Berlin,
. Summing up, he says: ': I traveled almost the whole world. And in the professional field of adventure managed to fame (including attempts to act as writer and director in film) '
. The ban on his works in Poland was just a few years removed, . and thanks to the changed situation in the country and enter the political arena union 'Solidarity', . Mrozhek managed through fifteen years of voluntary exile to come home,
. By the time he already had French citizenship, for which he could qualify as a political refugee.
After the defeat of Solidarity issued a series of dramatic and topical essays, directed against the Polish authorities and imbued with anti-communist sentiments. Essays were published in the West, and in Poland were distributed in samizdat. In connection with this entry his home was again closed.
In 1987 Mrozhek married a second time with his wife, Mexican settled in Mexico, where he lived in seclusion at the ranch 'La Epiphany', was engaged in farming and writing. According to his confession, he never got to know how to the country, but realized that there are other, not the European way of development, a different rhythm of life, different values. In Mexico, he created "My Autobiography" (1988), here, after it was decided to return to Poland, April 13, 1996, he began to "Diary of return".
Prose, written after the departure into exile, who shared the life of a writer in two parts, collected in the book "Two Letters" (1973), "Stories" (1981), "Short Letter (1982)," Denunciations "(1983)," Stories "(1994)," Stories and denunciations "(1995). After the departure of well written the play "Tango" (1964), "Tailor" (1964), "Lucky Case" (1973), "Massacre" (1973), "The Emigrants" (1974), "Beautiful view" (1998) and other.
Plays and stories often portrayed. Among the films where he acted as a writer - television and feature films "Police" (ekraniz. - 1960, 1970, 1971), "Striptease" (1963), "The suffering of Peter O'Heyya" (1964), "The Emigrants" (1977), "Love" (1978), "Tango" (ekraniz. - 1970, 1972, 1973, 1980), "The Last Cocktail" (1993), "Co-op 1" (1996), "The Revolution" (2002).
In 1998 Mrozhek returned to Poland.
Summing up, he did not think his experience special: 'I am only lived in this world. Survived the Second World War, German occupation of Poland, Stalin's communism and its sequel, but here there is nothing to boast of millions of people have the same. There is nothing exceptional in my emigration: '.
Deliberately avoiding interviews or tried to get rid of newsmen meaningless phrases, he does not like to speak with far-reaching statements in prose, and plays. Noticing suddenly proskolznuvshee page moralizing, delete it. Moreover, . that much in his own life has changed - from a serious heart disease, . long vybivshey him from working rhythm, . he wants to go back to work, . but to be something to think about and rethink: 'In the long life: I have long thought about the absurd,
. And when I finally thought, then found out that both times and am in the absurd. I even started to write something about the absurd, but then got tired of it. There is a thesis that a man lives is absurd and not think about it constantly, but from time to time is aware of this report. I decided to live more or less absurd, to conform to this thesis. And then I realized that I do not want. And now I live without the absurd '.
In 2002 Mrozhek again visited Russia as an honorary guest of the international theatrical festival "Baltic House" was in St. Petersburg, where he was received as an undoubted classic, one of the most popular playwrights in the 20.