Paul Galvin( Founder of Motorola)
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Biography Paul Galvin
Paul Galvin (Pol Galvin) (29.06.1895, the [Harvard] - 1959)
"Any company is effective only as effective as its employees," - liked to say he indefatigably drove his subordinates. One of the employees of the company named after the style of leadership of Paul Galvin's "daily to monitor the results of the tribunal". These executions were further aggravated by management and the explosive nature of the Galvin. Nevertheless, staff turnover was minimal, the majority of employees worked in the company for decades
. Station instead of school
. Paul Galvin was always sure to complete all negotiations are best helps personal demonstration of the latest products company
. And when in 1930 the company Galvin brothers badly needed loans to start producing the car radio, Paul has persuaded a Chicago banker personally try a novelty in his car. Financier was delighted with the radio and appeared recently at the company Galvin brothers get the necessary credit. But before the car drove off from the banker Paul, like radio burst directly into the cabin. The deal did not materialize. Despite the setback, Galvin has not renounced the practice of demonstrating new products, but they continue to require enhanced inspection.
Paul Galvin was born in Harvard, June 29, 1895. Passion for making money, he felt at school. While his peers crammed lessons thirteen Paul sold popcorn at the station hometown. Even in those years he owned a good market situation. Depending on the season, he replaced the pop-corn ham sandwich or ice cream. At the same station Paul met with state regulation, one of the foundations of modern economics. This happened when the head of the station decided to put an end to unlicensed trading activity. Fleeing from the raid, the station comrade Galvin nearly hit by train. But ultimately surrendered to the station master, and Paul earned the station trade until his admission to the University of Illinois in 1914.
. Being the bachelor, Paul in 1917 entered the U.S. Army and went to fight in Europe
. He spent two years at the front, having risen from private to captain. Returning home, he found temporary work at a battery factory. There he once again turn on their children's passion for his own business. In addition, Paul was married, and he needed money.
Together with colleagues Edward Stuart, he decided to open a company to produce the batteries in Wisconsin. But Stewart-Galvin Battery Company held out only three years. In 1923, the government closed down the company for tax. The company's office sealed with a coat of Paul, which he left there, going to dinner. "I felt sorry for this coat - he told me later. - The Government had every right to close the company, but why take my coat? "
. To maintain his wife and child, Paul had the time to forget their ambitions and settle personal secretary Emile Bracha, the owner of the confectionery company Brach Candy
. But after three years Galvin again with old partner Edward Stewart organizes the production of batteries, this time in Chicago. But this company was able to stay afloat only two years.
But Paul did not give. "I fell many times and know how to climb," - he said his wife, took the last $ 750 and bought it at auction for the sale of assets of failed companies for the production of network equipment power supply. Anything else money from Paul no longer had. Saved the day his younger brother Joseph, who agreed to join with him to share and added to the assets of the company $ 565 for current expenses. Since September 25, 1928 appeared Galvin Manufacturing Corporation. Rush is from bankruptcy to bankruptcy over, Paul began his business life.
Radio on Wheels
Galvin Manufacturing Corporation located in Chicago. According to the payroll, for the first week of five staff members paid $ 63. Manufactured by the corporation network rectifiers intended for those who listened to a portable radio at home and did not want once again to spend money on batteries. These products Galvin was a success, but received from the sale of rectifiers profit was too small. We had to produce something else, and Paul all day searching for new ideas.
In 1920 the Americans had lived for two things: cars and radio. The emergence of a new model of the radio was an event not less than the release of a new model of car. But all attempts to combine these two technological advances have been unsuccessful. Because of interference from the generator and distributor of ignition the radio is very bad to work in cars. To listen to the transmission, had to turn off the engine. In addition, radio tubes were very fragile. In general, radio and automobiles seemed so inconsistent, that when the engineer William Leary suggested Galvin a car radio, he said: "If a radio and maybe he would be banned - because it will distract the driver from the road."
. But when a few months Galvin was on business in New York, he was surprised to see the ad, which asked for an order for $ 240 to install in the car converted portable receiver
. And it was just a radio "gold", because the machine then cost about $ 650. At this time, Leary had no idea seemed ridiculous Galvin. He immediately returned to Chicago and gave staff the task: to make the car radio for less than $ 240. This was typical of Paul's management style: he made a global goal, and his staff made it real.
Galvin skin literally felt the market. He decided that the best way to draw attention to the new product will be its demonstration at the Congress of the Association of manufacturers of radios in Atlantic-City, which was held just a few months. In order to have time for this moment, it was necessary to solve many problems: how to install the radio in the car, how to protect electronic components from interference, how to make the radio not to break on potholes. To catch the exhibition, she had to work almost around the clock.
Two days before the congress working model was ready, but the test of time has not been. It is mounted in the "Studebaker" Paul, and he debugged it on the way from Chicago to Atlantic-City. A few days Paul and his wife showed the radio in a confined space cab. This model cost $ 110. As Paul later recalled, "people find the idea of installing radio in the car a strange, and some were confident that it can break the engine". Yet by the end of Congress, Paul has received several contracts, and already in the same 1930 sales were $ 287 000, with a small loss of $ 3 745. This loss was the last, which the company was under the direction of Paul.
Starting mass production, Galvin invented for the radio special brand. He combined in her words "motion" (in English motion) and then the popular brand name home Victrola radio. Since then, all products Galvin Manufacturing Corporation entered the market under the brand name Motorola.
Soon the company began manufacturing and portable radios. By 1936 radio was half of American families. Paul began to look for new markets.
The idea of the production of military radios came up with Paul during a family holiday in Europe in 1936. New German roads, which in Germany called highways seemed to him unusual. "These roads were built not only for cars, - he said. - It's expensive for the military equipment ". From leave, he returned with the conviction that Europe will soon begin a new war. And he put in front of engineers Galvin new task: to create a new radio for the Army. Paul was not wrong - the Second World War broke out three years.
While the armies of the world used in radio, hardly fits in a backpack and demanded choice - either to talk or listen. Paul was going to offer the U.S. Army two-way radio (by telephone). In 1940 he invited the company professor at the University of Connecticut, Daniel Noble. He was a pioneer in the development of radio frequency modulation in semiconductor technology.
In the same year work on the military walkie-talkie, called Handie-talkie, was completed. New device the company has opened the way for military orders. In the Second World army becomes the largest customer Galvin, and the company's sales in 1940 soared to $ 9.9 million
Now is the golden time of Paul. "Any company is effective only as effective as its employees," - liked to say he indefatigably drove his subordinates. One of the employees of the company named after the style of leadership of Paul Galvin's "daily to monitor the results of the tribunal". These executions were further aggravated by management and the explosive nature of the Galvin. Nevertheless, staff turnover was minimal, the majority of employees worked in the company for decades.
Productivity management methods, Paul really buoyed. Already in 1943 the company Galvin issued for the army walkie-talkie Walkie-talkie. This model became the ancestor of the class handheld radios that have a very long time simply called "voki-currents". Total, during the war the company produced 130 000 military radios.
When in 1942 the U.S. government banned the production of automobiles for civilian purposes, due to military orders of the company's profits Galvin did not even dropped. On the contrary, in 1944, its sales grew to $ 80 million. However, Paul was well aware that the war will not last forever. Therefore, he insisted that the 125 000 remaining in the warehouses of the company car radio were converted into home radios and put on sale. As a result, the company retained its remaining Galvin was out of work distribution network.
Seven to ten inches
The end of the war approached, and Paul tried to find a new product that will allow his company to thrive on. In 1943 it attracted the attention of television. In the U.S. the first television receiver has demonstrated "Radio Corporation of America" (RCA) in 1939. RCA produced TVs with screen sizes 10 inches (25 cm) at $ 300. Galvin suggested that his engineers to make a TV with a diagonal of seven inches (17.5 cm), but easier and cheaper.
In 1947, TV "Golden Vision" was ready to enter the market. Congratulating the staff with this event, Paul said that his price is $ 179.95. When one of the managers replied that this price will sell unprofitable, Galvin gave him his "firm" withering look and replied: "I named a price, and you have to work with her."
. Established by Paul Price has really made a TV mass production
. The first year it sold 100 000 TV. At that time, Galvin Manufacturing Corporation was renamed under the name of its most popular brand in Motorola.
. Soon Motorola by televisions offset declining sales of $ 34 million due to the abolition in 1945, the Army orders
. In 1949, sales have returned to the level of 1944 and more than doubled in 1950, reaching $ 177 million
Just at this time fifty Paul Galvin began to prepare his only son Robert his successor. In 1948, the 26-year-old Robert Galvin became executive vice president of Motorola, and in 1956 - president. But father closely followed the work of his son until his death in 1959. Even in old age, Robert, . having received from his father's company with annual sales of $ 225 million, . recalled: "My father never had a clearly thought-out plan of the company, . but he was a born improviser, . find new and new opportunities for the use of radio. ",
. The first portable transmitter
. Hatched in 1940, the army full-duplex radio with amplitude modulation Handie-talkie weighed 2 kg
. Three years later he replaced by a more miniature transmitter with frequency modulation Walkie-talkie. Hendy-currents had a communication range 15 miles, voki-currents - all 30. But the maximum coverage reached only with the transmitter released the entire length of 3,6 m antenna.
In 1956, Motorola launched the world's first pager - a radio that receives only the messages addressed to him. Among the first pagers have adopted the hospital staff and managers. Then pagers got everyone who wants to be always accessible: from the priests to call girls.
In 2004, Motorola sales totaled $ 31.32 billion, and net income - $ 2.2 billion. The company produces one in seven mobile phone in the world. Motorola working in 88 000 people worldwide. The company's headquarters is located in the town Shamburg, not far from Chicago. It lives only 75 000 inhabitants.